HYBRID MICROALGAL-ACTIVATED SLUDGE TREATMENT PROSPECTS: A REVIEW

  • Aminu Isiya Dabai Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Kaura Namoda, Nigeria
  • Kasim Mohammed Department of Civil Engineering, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria

Abstract

An enormous amount of wastewater was produced due to domestic, municipal, agricultural, and industrial activities of varying strength and contamination. These usually contained a high level of pollutants that include inorganic and organic pollutants, pesticides, and heavy metals. Physio-chemical treatment approaches were employed to treat these recalcitrant contaminants and effectively handle extremely toxic substances within a short period. However, despite this, these treatments were associated with setbacks, including incomplete pollutant removals, lack of multiple pollutants removal capabilities, excessive sludge production, and cost of energy and chemical employed. Hybrid microbial treatment systems were efficient due to their potential to remove multiple contaminants like heavy metals, BOD, COD, assimilate nutrients, production of renewable energy alternatives, and easily recycled or regenerated. The future bottleneck in terms of best microbial proportions for higher growth rates and removal efficiencies is highlighted.


Keywords: algae, bacteria, proportion, heavy metals, adsorption, toxic

References

[1] N.N. Ezike, U.U. Udiba, E.E. Ogabiela, N.S. Akpan, M.O. Odey, B. Inuwa, & A.M.G.B. Sule, “Assessment of the performance of primary effluent treatment plant of major tanneries in primary effluent treatment plant”, Trends in Advanced Science and Engineering, 5, 1, pp. 38–45, 2014.
[2] J.C Akan, E.A. Mosses, O.V. ., & A.J., “Assessment of tannnery industrial effluents from Kano Metropolis, Nigeria”, J Applied Sciences, 7, 19, pp. 2788–2793, 2007.
[3] A. Bhatnagar, & M. Sillanpää, “Utilization of agroindustrial and municipal waste materials as potential adsorbents for water treatment — A review”, Chemical Engineering Journal, 157, pp. 277–296, 2010, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2010.01.007.
[4] K. Mohammed, S.Z. Ahammad, S.P.J., & M.C.R., “Energy-efficient stirred-tank photobioreactors for simultaneous carbon capture and municipal wastewater treatment”, Water Science & Technology, 6, 10, pp. 2106–2112, 2014, doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/ wst.2014.123.
[5] S.N.A. Abas, M.H.S. Ismail, K.M.L., & I.S., “Adsorption process of heavy metals by low-cost adsorbent: A review department of chemical and environmental engineering, faculty of engineering, department of chemistry, faculty of applied science”, World Applied Sciences Journal, 28, 11, pp. 1518–1530, 2013, doi: https://doi.org/10.5829/idosi.wasj.2013.28.11.1874.
[6] Y. Chen, D. An, S. Sun, G.J., & Q.L. “Reduction and removal of chromium vi in water”, Materials, 11, 269, pp. 1–12, 2018, doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11020269.
[7] M. Chowdhury, M.G. Mostafa, T.K. Biswas, & A.K. Saha, “Treatment of leather industrial effluents by filtration and coagulation processes”, Water resources and industry, 3, pp. 11–22, 2013, doi: https://doi. org/10.1016/j.wri.2013.05.002.
[8] P.M. Godwin, Y. Pan, H. Xiao, & M.T. Afzal, “Progress in preparation and application of modified biochar for improving heavy metal ion removal from wastewater”, Journal of Bioresources and Bioproducts, 4, 1, pp. 31–42, 2019, doi: https://doi.org/10.21967/jbb.v4i2.180.
[9] S. Irobekhian, R. Okoduwa, B. Igiri, C.B. Udeh, C. Edenta, & B. Gauje, “Tannery effluent treatment by yeast species isolates from watermelon. toxics”, 5, 6, pp. 1–10, 2017, doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics5010006.
[10] P.S. Subashini, & P. Rajiv, “Chlorella Vulgaris DPSF 01: A unique tool for removal of toxic chemicals from tannery wastewater”, African Journal of Biotechnology, 17, 8, pp. 239–248, 2018, doi: https://doi.org/10.5897/ AJB2017.16359.
[11] H.D. Utomo, K. Xuan, D. Tan, Z. Yi, D. Choong, & J.J. Yu, “Biosorption of heavy metal by algae biomass in surface water”, Journal of Environmental Protection, 7, pp. 1547–1560, 2016, doi: https://doi.org/10.4236/ jep.2016.711128.
[12] N. Arumugam, S. Chelliapan, & H. Kamyab, “Treatment of wastewater using seaweed: A review”, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15, 2851, pp. 1–17, 2018, doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/ ijerph15122851. [13] S. Kumar, A.S. Ahluwalia, & M.U. Charaya, “Adsorption of Orange-G dye by the dried powdered biomass of Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck”, CURRENT SCIENCE, 116, 4, pp. 604–611, 2019.
Published
2021-05-31
How to Cite
DABAI, Aminu Isiya; MOHAMMED, Kasim. HYBRID MICROALGAL-ACTIVATED SLUDGE TREATMENT PROSPECTS: A REVIEW. Platform : A Journal of Science and Technology, [S.l.], v. 4, n. 1, p. 85-98, may 2021. ISSN 2637-0530. Available at: <https://myjms.mohe.gov.my/index.php/pjst/article/view/11189>. Date accessed: 21 may 2022.