• Noor Hafiz Noordin
  • Azli Abd Razak


Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) may come from various field of studies and normally it is related to the air quality level inside a building. Instead of building, vehicle cabin also can be considered as one of the indoor spaces and it is known as Vehicle Indoor Air Quality (VIAQ). Recently, vehicle has become one of the important requirements in individual life. People used vehicle to travel from one place to another without realize the exposure to the air pollutant inside the cabin. The high exposure to the many types of pollutants may affect the human health. However, this study was conducted to investigate one type of pollutant which is the concentrations of Particulate Matter (PM2.5) when a vehicle moving on the road with different ventilation modes. The data for PM2.5 concentrations and indoor temperatures were collected using direct-reading instruments such as Environmental Monitoring Instrument (EMI) and Thermal Recorder. It was found that, the different ventilation modes had a significant effect to the concentrations of PM2.5 and indoor temperature.


Abi-Esber, L., & El-Fadel, M. (2013). Indoor to outdoor air quality associations with self-pollution implications inside passenger car cabins. Atmospheric Environment, 81, 450–463. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.09.040
Adams, H. S., Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J., Colvile, R. N., McMullen, M. A. S., & Khandelwal, P. (2001). Fine particle (PM2.5) personal exposure levels in transport microenvironments, London, UK. Science of the Total Environment, 279(1–3), 29–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(01)00723-9
Boogaard, H., Borgman, F., Kamminga, J., & Hoek, G. (2009). Exposure to ultrafine and fine particles and noise during cycling and driving in 11 Dutch cities. Atmospheric Environment, 43(27), 4234–4242. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.05.035
Both, A. F., Westerdahl, D., Fruin, S., Haryanto, B., & Marshall, J. D. (2013). Exposure to carbon monoxide, fine particle mass, and ultrafine particle number in Jakarta, Indonesia: Effect of commute mode. Science of the Total Environment, 443, 965–972. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.10.082
Charles Rodes, Linda Sheldon, Don Whitaker, Andy Clayton, K. F. and J. F. (1999). Measuring concentrations of selected air pollutants inside California vehicles . Final report.
Ding, H., Zhang, Y., Sun, H., & Feng, L. (2015). Analysis of the PM2.5 Distribution and the Transfer Characteristic in a Car-Cabin. Procedia Engineering, 121, 875–880. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2015.09.043
DoE. (2013). New Malaysia Ambient Air Quality Standard. Retrieved from http://www.doe.gov.my/portalv1/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/Air-Quality-Standard-BI.pdf
Huang, J., Deng, F., Wu, S., & Guo, X. (2012). Comparisons of personal exposure to PM2.5 and CO by different commuting modes in Beijing, China. Science of the Total Environment, 425, 52–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.03.007
Jasni, M. a, & Nasir, F. M. (2012). Experimental Comparison Study of the Passive Methods in Reducing Car Cabin Interior Temperature. In International Conference on Mechanical, Automobile and Robotics Engineering (ICMAR2012) Penang, Malaysia (pp. 229–233).
Levy, J. I., Dumyahn, T., & Spengler, J. D. (2002). Particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in indoor and outdoor microenvironments in Boston, Massachusetts. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology, 12(2), 104–114. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj/jea/7500203
Malaysia, J. P. J. (2015). Jumlah Pendaftaran Kenderaan Awam Mengikut Tahun. Retrieved from http://www.jpj.gov.my/pertanyaan-saman-notis
Rana, S. (2006). Environmental Pollution, Health and Toxicology. Alpha Science International Ltd.
Riediker, M., Williams, R., Devlin, R., Griggs, T., & Bromberg, P. (2003). Exposure to particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, and other air pollutants inside patrol cars. Environmental Science and Technology, 37(10), 2084–2093. https://doi.org/10.1021/es026264y
Sanidas, E., Papadopoulos, D. P., Grassos, H., Velliou, M., Tsioufis, K., Barbetseas, J., & Papademetriou, V. (2017). Air pollution and arterial hypertension. A new risk factor is in the air. Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, 11(11), 709–715. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jash.2017.09.008
USEPA, U. S. E. P. A. (n.d.). Particulate Matter (PM) Basics. Retrieved July 22, 2015, from https://www.epa.gov/pm-pollution/particulate-matter-pm-basics#PM
Xu, B., Wu, Y., Gong, Y., Wu, S., Wu, X., Zhu, S., & Liu, T. (2015). Investigation of volatile organic compounds exposure inside vehicle cabins in China. Atmospheric Pollution Research, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apr.2015.09.005
You, K. W., Ge, Y. S., Hu, B., Ning, Z. W., Zhao, S. T., Zhang, Y. N., & Xie, P. (2007). Measurement of in-vehicle volatile organic compounds under static conditions. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 19, 1208–1213. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-0742(07)60197-1
How to Cite
NOORDIN, Noor Hafiz; ABD RAZAK, Azli. EFFECT OF VENTILATION MODES AND INDOOR TEMPERATURE TO THE CONCENTRATIONS OF PARTICULATE MATTER (PM2.5) INSIDE VEHICLE CABIN DURING MOBILE CONDITIONS. Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Environment, [S.l.], v. 8, n. 2, p. 33-48, june 2021. ISSN 0128-326X. Available at: <https://myjms.mohe.gov.my/index.php/myse/article/view/13235>. Date accessed: 30 nov. 2021. doi: https://doi.org/10.24191/myse.v8i2.13235.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.