​​Synthesis of graphene oxide using modified hammers method as fluid loss control additive for water-based drilling fluid (WBDF)​

  • Nik Khairul Irfan Nik Ab Lah School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Wan Al Harrif Alif Wan Zaini School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Nur Hidayati Othman School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Nur Hashimah Alias School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Munawar Zaman Shahruddin School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Muhamad Shafiq Sayuti School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia


Water-based drilling fluid (WBDF) is one of the commonly used fluids in drilling operations due to its low cost and environmental advantages compared to oil-based fluid (OBF) and synthetic-based fluid (SBF). The effectiveness of a drilling fluid is mainly dependent on its rheological and filtration properties and these properties are strongly correlated to the type of additives used during the formulation of drilling mud. This study aims to investigate the use of graphene oxide (GO) as a nano-additive in WBDF and evaluate its influence on the rheology and filtration properties of the drilling fluid. Basic rheological properties such as plastic viscosity, yield point, filter cake thickness and density were examined. GO was synthesised using modified Hummer’s method and characterised using x-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) to confirm the properties of GO. XRD analysis shows that graphite was successfully oxidised and exfoliated to GO. The FTIR analysis confirms the presence of C–O, C=C, and O–H bonds in the synthesised GO. The amount of GO added to the WBDF was varied and changes in the rheological properties (density, plastic viscosity, yield point and mud cake thickness) were studied. It was observed that drilling fluid developed using GO has better rheological and filtration properties than drilling fluid formulated without GO. The mud thickness was reduced after the addition of GO, indicating that GO-WBDFs have the capability to control fluid loss into the formation during drilling activities. 


Aba, N. F. D., Chong, J. Y., Wang, B., Mattevi, C., & Li, K. (2015). Graphene oxide membranes on ceramic hollow fibres - Microstructural stability and nanofiltration performance. Journal of Membrane Science, 484, 87–94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2015.03.001
Abdo, J., & Haneef, M. D. (2012). Nano-enhanced drilling fluids: pioneering approach to overcome uncompromising drilling problems. Journal of Energy Resources Technology, 134(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4005244
Abduo, M. I., Dahab, A. S., Abuseda, H., AbdulAziz, A. M., & Elhossieny, M. S. (2016). Comparative study of using Water-Based mud containing Multiwall carbon nanotubes versus oil-based mud in HPHT fields. Egyptian Journal of Petroleum, 25(4), 459–464. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpe.2015.10.008
Adari, R. B., Miska, S., Kuru, E., Bern, P., & Saasen, A. (2000, October 1–4). Selecting drilling fluid properties and flow rates for effective hole cleaning in high-angle and horizontal wells [Paper presentation]. The Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, Texas, USA. https://doi.org/10.2118/63050-ms
Amanullah, A., Al-arfaj, M. K., &Al-abdullatif, Z. (2011, March 1–9). Preliminary test results of nano-based drilling fluids for oil and gas field application [Paper presentation]. 2011 The Society of Petroleum Engineers SPE/IADC Drilling Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. https://doi.org/10.2118/139534-MS
Alam, S. N., Sharma, N., & Kumar, L. (2017). Synthesis of graphene oxide (GO) by modified Hummer’s method and its thermal reduction to obtain reduced graphene oxide (rGO)*. Graphene, 06(01), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.4236/graphene.2017.61001
Arif, M., Zaidi, M., Aslam, M., & Kamal, A. (2022). A review on the effect of nanoparticle in drilling fluid on filtration and formation damage. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 217, 110922. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2022.110922
Baba Hamed, S., & Belhadri, M. (2009). Rheological properties of biopolymers drilling fluids. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 67(3–4), 84–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2009.04.001
Caenn, R., & Chillingar, G. V. (1996). Drilling fluids: State of the art. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 14(3–4), 221–230. https://doi.org/10.1016/0920-4105(95)00051-8
Compton, M., Verano, F., Nelson, G., & Wu, S. X. (2010, December 1–3). Managing downhole vibrations for hole-enlargement-while-drilling in deepwater environment: A proven approach utilizing drill string dynamics model [Paper presentation]. Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) Latin American and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference, Lima, Peru. https://doi.org/10.2118/139234-ms
Dyke, K. Van. (2000). Drilling Fluids: Lesson 2 (First Edition). The University of Texas at Austin - Petroleum.
Fattah, K. A., El-Katatney, S. M., & Dahab, A. A. (2011). Potential implementation of underbalanced drilling technique in Egyptian oil fields. Journal of King Saud University-Engineering Sciences, 23(1), 49–66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksues.2010.02.001
Fink, J. (2021). Drilling muds. In Petroleum Engineer’s Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids (3rd ed., pp. 1–122). Gulf Professional Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-323-85438-2.00001-3
Hossain, M. E., & Apaleke, A. (2018). An overview of mud technology and challenges toward greening of drilling fluid. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, 14(12), 2837–2848. https://doi.org/10.30638/eemj.2015.300
Lyons, W. C., & Plisga, G. J. (2016). Drilling and Well Completions. In Standard Handbook of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering (Second Edition). Gulf Professional Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-383846-9.00004-7
Kosynkin, D. V., Ceriotti, G., Wilson, K. C., Lomeda, J. R., Scorsone, J. T., Patel, A. D., Friedheim, J. E., & Tour, J. M. (2012). Graphene oxide as a high-performance fluid-loss-control additive in water-based drilling fluids. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 4(1), 222–227. https://doi.org/10.1021/am2012799
Marcano, D. C., Kosynkin, D. V., Berlin, J. M., Sinitskii, A., Sun, Z., Slesarev, A., Alemany, L. B., Lu, W., & Tour, J. M. (2010). Improved synthesis of graphene oxide. ACS Nano, 4(8), 4806–4814. https://doi.org/10.1021/nn1006368
Meng, X., Zhang, Y., Zhou, F., & Chu, P. K. (2012). Effects of carbon ash on rheological properties of water-based drilling fluids. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 100, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2012.11.011
Paulchamy, B., Arthi G, & Lignesh, B. D. (2015). A simple approach to stepwise synthesis of graphene oxide nanomaterial. Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology, 6(1), 1000253. https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7439.1000253
Razak Ismail, A., Seong, T. C., Buang, N. A., Rosli, W., & Sulaiman, W. (2014). Improve performance of water-based drilling fluids. Sriwijaya International Seminar on Energy-Environmental Science and Technology, 1(1), 43–47. https://ejournal.unsri.ac.id/index.php/siseest/article/view/1621
Retnanto, A., Yrac, R., Shaat, A., Retnanto, A., Abughaush, L., Al Sulaiti, M., & Badar, N. (2023). Evaluation of the viability of nanoparticles in drilling fluids as additive for fluid loss and wellbore stability. Petroleum, 9(3), 342–351. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petlm.2023.02.005
Safian, M. T. uddeen, Raja, P. B., Shen, C. Y., & Mohamad Ibrahim, M. N. (2023). A novel preparation of bio-based graphene from oil palm biomass as a fluid loss additive in water-based drilling fluid. Geoenergy Science and Engineering, 231(Part A), 212321. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoen.2023.212321
Somanathan, T., Prasad, K., Ostrikov, K. K., Saravanan, A., & Krishna, V. M. (2015). Graphene oxide synthesis from agro waste. Nanomaterials, 5(2), 826–834. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano5020826
Sun, J., Chang, X., Lv, K., Wang, J., Zhang, F., Jin, J., Zhou, X., & Dai, Z. (2021). Environmentally friendly and salt-responsive polymer brush based on lignin nanoparticle as fluid-loss additive in water-based drilling fluids. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 621, 126482. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2021.126482
Taha, N. M., Lee, S., & Kmc, S. (2015, December 6–9). Nano graphene application improving drilling fluids performance [Paper presentation]. The International Petroleum Technology Conference, Doha, Qatar. https://doi.org/10.2523/IPTC-18539-MS
Taiwo, A., Joel, O. F., & Kazeem, A. A. (2011). Investigation of local polymer (Cassava starches) as a substitute for imported sample in viscosity and fluid loss control of water based drilling mud. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 6(12), 43–48.
Yahya, M. N., Norddin, M. N. A. M., Ismail, I., Rasol, A. A. A., Risal, A. R., O.Oseh, J., Yakasai, F., Ngouangna, E. N., Khan, S., & Al-Ani, M. (2023). Modified locally derived graphene nanoplatelets for enhanced rheological, filtration and lubricity characteristics of water-based drilling fluids. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 16(12), 105305. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2023.105305
Zakaria, M. F., Husein, M., & Hareland, G. (2012, June 12–14). Novel nanoparticle-based drilling fluid reveals improved characteristics [Paper presentation]. The Society of Petroleum ENgineers (SPE) International Oilfield Nanotechnology Conference and Exhibition, Noordwijk, The Netherlands. https://doi.org/10.2118/156992-MS
How to Cite
NIK AB LAH, Nik Khairul Irfan et al. ​​Synthesis of graphene oxide using modified hammers method as fluid loss control additive for water-based drilling fluid (WBDF)​. Malaysian Journal of Chemical Engineering and Technology (MJCET), [S.l.], v. 6, n. 2, p. 135-143, oct. 2023. ISSN 2682-8588. Available at: <https://myjms.mohe.gov.my/index.php/mjcet/article/view/22684>. Date accessed: 28 feb. 2024. doi: https://doi.org/10.24191/mjcet.v6i2.22684.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.