Development of STEM Teaching Module for Rural Primary Schools in Sabah: Need Analysis with Justification and Key Features
Exemplar with a Need Analysis Report
The personnel involved in the implementation of STEM education at rural primary schools were interviewed. These include the head of Science and Mathematics Unit at the District Education Office, state science coach, excellent science teacher, long-service and experienced science teachers, School Improvement Specialist Coaches (SISC+) as well as UPSR science paper examiners. The interview protocol was prepared to identify the understanding of the 5E instructional model, science topics that are suitable to be integrated with STEM elements, module features, the selection of resources for the proposed activities and expectations for the to-be-developed modules. It was found almost half of the subject interviewed were unaware of the existence of the 5E instructional model although they have been practicing inquiry-based learning approach in their science classrooms. Science topics that are recommended to be included in the Year 4 Science Module were Scientific Skill, Life Processes in Human, Properties of Matters, Measurements, Solar System and Importance of Technology in Life. Topics such as Rules and Regulations in Science Room, Life Processes in Plants, Electric, Acids and Alkali, Earth, Moon and Sun and Technologies were recommended to be included in the to-be-developed Year 5 Science Module. Some of the problems that have arisen in the teaching of STEM at rural primary schools are lack of conducive STEM science lab, a shorter period of science teaching per week, unclear description of the experimental results in the textbook, poor resources in introducing STEM activities and the need to strengthen STEM knowledge to the children at the earliest level. Hence, the future effort of the research is to develop well-designed STEM teaching modules which are in line with the Primary Science Curriculum Standard.