Tuberculosis in Malaysia: An Overview for 2015

  • Nur Hamizah Nasaruddin Centre for Burden of Disease Research, Institute for Public Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia
  • Shubash Shander Ganapathy Centre for Burden of Disease Research, Institute for Public Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia
  • Mohd Azahadi Omar Research Policy and Planning Division, Sector for Biostatics & Data Repository, National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia
  • Mohamad Fuad Mohamad Anuar Research Policy and Planning Division, Sector for Biostatics & Data Repository, National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia
  • Lee Ann, Tan Centre for Burden of Disease Research, Institute for Public Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia
  • Nazirah Alias Centre for Burden of Disease Research, Institute for Public Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia

Abstract

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a treatable disease that has been present since ancient times. Until now, TB still remains a global health concern. The study on the burden of TB in terms of Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) is not yet widespread in Malaysia. The objective of this study is to describe Malaysia's burden of TB for the year 2015.


Methods: The DALYs were calculated by summing the Years of Life Lost (YLL) with the Years Lived with Disability (YLD) for TB in 2015. The YLL were calculated using the mortality and life expectancy data obtained from Malaysia's Department of Statistics. The YLD were produced using prevalence derived from DISMOD-II software based on incidence data provided by Malaysia's disease notification system. The YLL, YLD, and DALYs for TB were tabulated according to age group and gender. 


Results: TB caused 47,736 DALYs, with a higher YLL (71.2%) compared to the YLD (28.8%). Males (69.3%) contributed more DALYs compared to females (30.7%). The working population aged between 25 to 54 years old caused the highest burden (57.4%). The rate of TB burden was highest among those aged 65 years and older (419 DALYs per 100,000 population).


Discussion: Strenuous efforts in TB prevention programmes in workplace settings could be the key to reducing the disease burden among males and the working age groups. Intensified screening of risk factors can potentially alleviate the high mortality and morbidity burden among the elderly. 

Author Biography

Nur Hamizah Nasaruddin, Centre for Burden of Disease Research, Institute for Public Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia

Nur Hamizah Nasaruddin, Centre of Burden of Disease Research, Institute for Public Health, National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia, No. 1, Jalan Setia Murni U13/52, Seksyen U13, Bandar Setia Alam, 40170 Shah Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. Email: dr_nurhamizah@moh.gov.my

References

Dooley, K.E. & Chaisson, R.E. (2009). Tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus: convergence of two epidemics. The Lancet. Infectious Diseases, 9(12), 737–746. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(09)70282-8

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. (2017) "GBD Compare | IHME Viz Hub (Retrived 21st April 2020). Available at: http://vizhub.healthdata.org/gbd-compare.

Horton, K.C., MacPherson, P., Houben, R.M.G.J., White, R.G. & Corbett, E.L. (2016). Sex Differences in Tuberculosis Burden and Notifications in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. PLOS Medicine, 13(9), e1002119. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002119

Johansson, E., Long, N.H., Diwan, V.K. & Winkvist, A., (2000). Gender and tuberculosis control: perspectives on health-seeking behaviour among men and women in Vietnam. Health Policy (Amsterdam, Netherland), 52(1), 33–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0168-8510(00)00062-2

Krishnan, L., Akande, T., Shankar, A.V., McIntire, K.N., Gounder, C.R., Gupta, A., & Yang, W.-T. (2014). Gender-Related Barriers and Delays in Accessing Tuberculosis Diagnostic and Treatment Services: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies. Tuberculosis Research Treatment. e215059. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/215059

Kulkarni, P., Akarte, S., Mankeshwar, R., Bhawalkar, J., Banerjee, A. & Kulkarni, A. (2013). Non-adherence of new pulmonary tuberculosis patients to anti-tuberculosis treatment. Annals of medical and health science research, 3(1), 67–74. https://doi.org/10.4103/2141-9248.109507

Kyu, H.H., Maddison, E.R., Henry, N.J., Mumford, J.E., Barber, R., Shields, C., et al. (2018). The global burden of tuberculosis: results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015’. LANCET Infectious Disease. 18, 261–284. https://doi.org/doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(17)30703-X

Lönnroth, K., Castro, K.G., Chakaya, J.M., Chauhan, L.S., Floyd, K., Glaziou, P., Raviglione, M.C. (2010). Tuberculosis control and elimination 2010-50: cure, care, and social development. Lancet (London, England), 375(9728), 1814–1829. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60483-7

Institute for Public Health (2017). Malaysian burden of disease and injury study 2009-2014.pdf.

Mathers, C., Vos, T., Lopez, A., Salomon, J., Majid, E. (2001). National Burden of Disease Studies: A Practical Guide, 2.0. ed. Global Program on Evidence for Health Policy, Geneva: World Health Organization.

Ministry of Health Malaysia (2016). National strategic plan for tuberculosis control (2016-2020). pdf.

Omar, A., Ganapathy, S.S., Anuar, M.F.M., Khoo, Y.Y., Jeevananthan, C., Awaluddin, S.M., et al. (2019). Cause-specific mortality estimates for Malaysia in 2013: results from a national sample verification study using medical record review and verbal autopsy. BMC Public Health 19, 110. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-6384-7

Oortwijn, W., Nelissen, E., Adamini, S., van den Heuvel, S., Geuskens, G., Burdorf, L. (2011). Health of people of working age :summary report. European Commission Directorate General for Health and Consumers. Luxembourg, LU.

Population Quick Info [WWW Document], n.d. URL http://pqi.stats.gov.my/searchBI.php (accessed 6.10.21).

Salomon, J.A., Haagsma, J.A., Davis, A., de Noordhout, C.M., Polinder, S., Havelaar, A.H., et al. (2015). Disability weights for the Global Burden of Disease 2013 study. Lancet Global Health 3(11), e712-723. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(15)00069-8

Tee, E.-S., Yap, R.W.K. (2017). Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Malaysia: current trends and risk factors. European Journal Clinical Nutrition, 71(7), 844–849. https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2017.44

Vos, T., Allen, C., Arora, M., Barber, R.M., Bhutta, Z.A., Brown, A., et. al. (2016). Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. The Lancet 388(10053), 1545–1602. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31678-6

World Health Organization (2015). The End TB Strategy. URL https://www.who.int/home/cms-decommissioning.

World Health Organization (2019). Global Tuberculosis Report 2019. Geneva, World Health Organization. URL https://www.who.int/teams/global-tuberculosis-programme/tb-reports/global-report-2019.

World Health Organization (2020). Global tuberculosis report 2020. URL https://www.who.int/publications-detail-redirect/9789240013131.

World Health Organization (2020). TB new and relapse cases

World Health Organization (2020). Mortality data by country Database. URL https://www.who.int/data/data-collection-tools/who-mortality-database.

Zainudin, N., Hamirudin, A.H., Rahman, N.A.A., Sidek, S. (2016). Prevalence and intervention of malnutrition risk of Malaysian elderly living in the community: A literature review. International Islamic University Malaysia Medical Journal Malaysia. 15(2016), 97. https://doi.org/10.31436/imjm.v15i1.1272

Zhu, S., Xia, L., Yu, S., Chen, S., Zhang, J. (2017). The burden and challenges of tuberculosis in China: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Scientific Reports, 7(1), 14601. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-15024-1
Published
2022-07-20
How to Cite
NASARUDDIN, Nur Hamizah et al. Tuberculosis in Malaysia: An Overview for 2015. Journal of Health Management, [S.l.], v. 18, n. 2, p. 16-25, july 2022. ISSN 2948-5126. Available at: <https://myjms.mohe.gov.my/index.php/johm/article/view/18869>. Date accessed: 28 feb. 2024.
Section
Articles