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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in Microsoft Word file format (.doc or .docx)
  • The text is spaced at 1.5, with double spaces between paragraphs and sections; uses a 11-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.

Author Guidelines

Interested in submitting to this journal? We recommend that you review the About the Journal page for the journal's section policies, as well as the Author Guidelines. Authors need to register with the journal prior to submitting or, if already registered, can simply log in and begin the submission process. Download the detailed Authur Guidelines here.

The submission to publication process will take up to 3 months from submission. Manuscripts that do not adhere to the Author Guidelines might take longer to get published.    

It is advisable to use the prepared manuscript template for submission preparation. Download the manuscript template here [Click File > Download > Microsoft Word (.docx)]  



1. Introduction
This guide is intended to assist authors in the preparation of their manuscripts in terms of formatting and writing conventions. These requirements are standardised for the ease of appointed reviewers to read and give comments and feedback.

2. Language
The manuscript should be written in British (UK) English. Language use should be consistent throughout the manuscript, especially in terms of spelling.

3. Page Layout
The text should be presented in the portrait layout. The landscape layout may be used for large figures and tables.

4. Type of Paper
A4 size (210mm X 297mm) paper should be used.

5. Column Layout
The manuscript should be in a single column throughout.

6. Typeface and Font Size
The text of the manuscript, including abstract, headings, tables, captions, references is preferably in Cambria, otherwise any sans-serif type font must be used throughout the manuscript.


The title should be 16-point, bolded, left-aligned, and in UPPERCASE. The author's name should be 12-point, bolded, left-aligned, and written in full name. The place of work/institution and corresponding author email should be in a 10-point and sentence case. The place of work/institution should be written in full address and the corresponding email address is preferably a formal or professional email address.

The abstract font size should be 10-point and should not be italicised except for scientific names and terms in a different language. Bold print is used for sections (Introduction, Methods, etc.)


The body of the manuscript content font size should be 11-point and should not be italicised except for scientific names and terms in a different language. Bold print is used for headings. Bold print and Italics are used for subheadings and should be in sentence case. Footnotes, captions and text in tables should not be less than 8-point.

7. Margins
The left, right, top, and bottom margins should be at 25mm or 1 inch. All information (text headings, footnotes, and figures), including page numbers, must be within the margin as stated.

8. Spacing
The manuscript should be at spaced at 1.5, with double spaces between paragraphs and sections. The following, however, should be single-spaced:

i. Quatations of three lines or more, intended and set in a block;
ii. References or biblography;
iii. Multi-line captions (table, figures);
iv. Appendices; and
v. Headings or subheadings.

9. Pagination 
All pages should be numbered consecutively throughout the manuscript. Page numbers should appear by themselves and should not be placed in brackets or hyphenated.

10. Line numbering
Lines of the manuscript should be numbered continuously from start to finish.


1. Abstract 
The abstract is the gist of the entire manuscript and should be given the same careful attention as the main text. It should not include any references. Abbreviations or acronyms must be preceded by the full terms at the first use. An abstract should not be more than 300 words. The abstract should be structured with distinct, labelled sections (e.g., Introductions, Methods, Results, and Discussion). It includes a brief statement of the problem and objectives of the study, a concise description of the research method and design, a summary of the major findings including their significance, and conclusions. Provide five (5) to seven (7) keywords which encapsulate the principal topics of the manuscript. Your manuscript should be categorised under one of these classifications: Research paper, Viewpoint, Technical paper, Conceptual paper, Case study, Literature review, or General view.

2. Body of Manuscript Draft
The body of the manuscript consists of sections which are organised as chapters. A chapter may be divided into major sections and subsections. Primary headings within chapters are to be left- aligned. Subheadings are left justified. The body of the manuscript should be left justified without indentations.

2.1 Introduction
State the purpose of the article as well as the rationale and objectives of the study.

2.2 Materials and Methods
Describe the selection of subjects. Identify the methods, tools, apparatus, and procedure of the study in sufficient detail to allow other researchers to repeat the study. Statistical tests should be given in detail and the use of computer software should also be mentioned. For studies with ethical considerations, the statement of approval from the relevant ethics committee has to be mentioned including the study number (or NMRR number, for studies conducted from Malaysia).

2.3 Results
Present the results in logical sequence. Use appropriate tables or illustrations. Use appropriate tables or illustrations. All illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.

2.4 Discussion
Emphasise the new and important aspects of the study. Discuss the implications of the findings, and the limitation and relate the findings with other studies.

2.5 Conclusion
Link the conclusions with the objectives of the study. Avoid conclusions not supported by the data.

2.6 Acknowledgment
Acknowledgment grants awarded in aid of the study (state the number of the grants, name and location of the institute or organisation) as well as persons who have contributed significantly to the study. For studies with ethical considerations in Malaysia, do not forget to acknowledge the Director General of the Ministry of Health Malaysia.

2.7 Conflict of Interest
The authors have to declare any conflict of interest.

 3. Tables

3.1 Body of the tables
Ensure that all tables shown in the manuscript are referred to in the text. Tables should be numbered with numerals (1,2,3, etc.) throughout the manuscript.

3.2 All tables and figures should be placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end
Large tables can be placed in landscape orientation. The table number, title and caption should be single-spaced and placed above the table. The content of the table should not be lined, except for the table headers and the bottom of the table. Avoid the use of vertical lines to separate columns within a table unless absolutely necessary. The style used must be consistent throughout the draft.

Table sources and notes should be placed directly below the table. If a table has been adapted from a source, indicate using “Adapted from…” instead of “Source:….”

3.3 Footnotes
Footnotes should be at the bottom of the table, label each with superscript lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.) keyed to the title, heading, or entry on the table. The font size should not be less than 8-point.

4. Figures
As with tables, ensure that each figure is referred to in the text. Figures include maps, charts, graphs, diagrams, photographs, and printed images. They are numbered consecutively. The figure number, title and caption should be single-spaced and placed below the figure using Arabic numeral and lowercase, except for proper nouns and the first letter of principal words.All tables and figures should be placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end. The style must be consistent throughout the manuscript.

If a figure occupies and entire page, the caption may be type below the figure.  The caption font size should not be less than 8-point. The figure number, title and caption should be typed parallel to the orientation of the figure. Figures should conform to standard margin requirement.

5. References
Only the Harvard style should be used for the referencing style throughout the manuscript. Please use a Reference Manager. If using Mendeley, please use Elsevier – Harvard 2 citation style, while if using Zotero, please use Elsevier - Harvard 2 (with titles) as a citation style. Identify references in the table and figures. The references should be in alphabetical order and not be numbered. Try to avoid using abstracts as references. List all authors when six or fewer. Seven or more authors should be listed in the first six, and then add et al. References should be 60 - 75% from the last 5 years. Keep self-citation to a maximum of four or five.

Download a detailed guideline here.


1. Units of measures
Use internationally recognised units of measures, preferably SI such as:

litre - L
millilitres - mL
kilograms - kg
kilometre - km
metric tonnes - t
grams - g
Malaysian Ringgit - MYR
metric tonne/hectare - t/ha

The numbers before the measurement units should not be spelt out, (e.g., write 5 kg, not five kg) even if they are below 100 unless they are the first word of sentences or the number one (1). Not the space between the figure and the unit of measure.

2. Numbers
All integers less than ten should be spelled out unless they are attached to units of measure. Use figures for the number 10 or more (10). If a sentence begins with a number, write the number in words, e.g., “Three hundred and eighty-five respondents were interviewed,” instead of “385 respondents were interviewed.” Or change the order of the sentence. Use numerals for a series of figures. For example:

• There were 4 chairs, 12 boxes, 13 books, 10 files, and 8 pairs of shoes in the room.
• The number of taxi permits issued during the past five years was 8, 35, 56, 21, and 90.

3. Names of organism
The name of an organism should be written in the full time it appears in both the abstract and in the text. The name may then be abbreviated according to accepted conventions, e.g., Escherichia coli should be shortened to E. coli.

4. Elliptical marks
Writers use the ellipsis mark to show an omission from quoted material. The ellipse consists of three spaced full stops (…). When an ellipsis comes at the end of the sentence, it appears as four full stops (….). One full stop marks the end of the sentence and the other three full stops signal the omission. For example:

Khatijah, 1987, p.4, wrote about the conference: “Members at the conference at Kuala Lumpur… agreed that the world educational crisis sketched in the document as real. ….”

5. Use of a symbol to show the percentage
The symbol % may be used in place of the word percent, e.g., 54.6% and type without a space before it. If the author prefers to write 54.6 percent in full, then consistency must be maintained throughout the manuscript. In tables, the symbol % may be used at the head of a column to mean percent.