• saiyidah nafisah hashim mrs


Deltamethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide which possesses an extremely high level of activity against a wide range of insects. It acts by both direct contact and ingestion. However, the application of this pesticide needs to be tested to understand the effect of its sprayed frequency towards plant growth. The study aimed to investigate the effect of deltamethrin pesticide exposure on C. frutescens. This experiment used a pesticide with 2.8% active ingredient of deltamethrin and sprayed on the C. frutescens plant at different frequencies for two weeks. Parameters measured to assess the effect of deltamethrin insecticide are the soil pH, water content, soil organic content, starch, and chlorophyll analysis. The result found that the deltamethrin insecticides changed the morphological and physiological properties of C. frutescens based on the sprayed frequency. The deltamethrin insecticide negatively affects plant's soils with increment on the soil pH while using it at high frequency. This also reduced the organic content and water content in the treated soil. Other than that, the frequent application of this insecticide reduces the chlorophyll and starch of the plants and causes the green color to disappear, thus negatively influencing the photosynthesis process. Study concludes that the frequency of the deltamethrin pesticides towards plants is needed at minimal exposure to avoid contaminating soil and maintain a sustainable plant growth.


Aktar, M. W., Sengupta, D., & Chowdhury, A. (2009). Impact of pesticides use in agriculture: their benefits and hazards. Interdisciplinary toxicology, 2(1), 1.

Alengebawy, A., Abdelkhalek, S. T., Qureshi, S. R., & Wang, M. Q. (2021). Heavy metals and pesticides toxicity in agricultural soil and plants: Ecological risks and human health implications. Toxics, 9(3), 42.

Ardley, J.H. (1999). Pesticide considerations on environmental concern. Agricultural Sciences 12(2), 21-24.

Bhanu, S., Archana, S., Ajay, K., Bhatt, J.L., Bajpai, S.P., Singh, P.S. & Vandana, B. (2011). Impact of deltamethrin on environment, use as an insecticide and its bacterial degradation: A preliminary study. International Journal Environment Sciences 1(5), 977-985.

Branco, M., & Franco, J. C., & Mendel, Z. (2023). Sap-Sucking Forest Pests in Forest Entomology and Pathology. Springer, South Africa: pp 417 - 456. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-11553-0_13

Bradberry, S. M., Cage, S. A., Proudfoot, A. T., & Vale, J. A. (2005). Poisoning due to pyrethroids. Toxicological reviews, 24, 93-106.
Bragança, I., Mucha, A. P., Tomasino, M. P., Santos, F., Lemos, P. C., Delerue-Matos, C., & Domingues, V. F. (2019). Deltamethrin impact in cabbage planted soil: Degradation and effect on microbial community structure. Chemosphere, 220, 1179-1186.
Carpio, M. J., Sánchez-Martín, M. J., Rodríguez-Cruz, M. S., & Marín-Benito, J. M. (2021). Effect of organic residues on pesticide behavior in soils: a review of laboratory research. Environments, 8(4), 32.
Cochran, B., Lunday, D., & Miskevich, F. (2008). Kinetic analysis of amylase using quantitative Benedict's and iodine starch reagents. Journal of chemical education, 85(3), 401.
Gallo-Franco, J. J., Duque-Gamboa, D. N., & Toro-Perea, N. (2019). Bacterial communities of Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from pepper crops (Capsicum sp.). Scientific reports, 9 (1), 5766. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42232-8
González-Rodríguez, R. M., Rial-Otero, R., Cancho-Grande, B., Gonzalez-Barreiro, C., & Simal-Gándara, J. (2011). A review on the fate of pesticides during the processes within the food-production chain. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 51(2), 99-114.
Hall, D. O., & Rao, K. (1999). Photosynthesis. Cambridge University Press.
Hołyńska-Iwan, I., & Szewczyk-Golec, K. (2020). Pyrethroids: how they affect human and animal health?. Medicina, 56(11), 582.
International Agency for Research on Cancer, & International Agency for Research on Cancer. (1991). Occupational exposures in insecticide application, and some pesticides. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, 53.
Ishkandar, C.D.M., Nawi, N.M., Janius, R., Mazlan, N., & Lin T.T. (2021). Detection of deltamethrin in cabbages using visible shortwave near-infrared spectroscopy. Food Research, 5(3), 273 - 280.
Ismail, B. S., Mazlinda, M., & Tayeb, M. A. (2015). The persistence of deltamethrin in Malaysian agricultural soils. Sains Malaysiana, 44(1), 83-89. https://doi.org/10.17576/jsm-2015-4401-12

Kyle Daniel, (2021). Diagnosing Phytotoxicity on Lanscape Plants. The Purdue Landscape Report, 21-15.
Laskowski, D. A. (2002). Physical and chemical properties of pyrethroids. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology: Continuation of Residue Reviews, 49-170.
Laurie L. D. (2015). What if photosynthesis stopped happening?. https://science.howstuffworks.com/science-vs-myth/what-if/what-if-photosynthesis-stopped.htm. [Access online 3 October 2023].
Muhammad, I., Shalmani, A., Ali, M., Yang, Q. H., Ahmad, H., & Li, F. B. (2021). Mechanisms regulating the dynamics of photosynthesis under abiotic stresses. Frontiers in plant science, 11, 615942.
Muñoz, P., & Munné-Bosch, S. (2018). Photo-oxidative stress during leaf, flower and fruit development. Plant Physiology, 176(2), 1004-1014.
Oshunsanya, S. (Ed.). (2019). Introductory Chapter: Relevance of Soil pH to Agriculture. In Soil pH for Nutrient Availability and Crop Performance. IntechOpen, United Kingdom: pp 3-5 https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.82551
Pathak, V. M., Verma, V. K., Rawat, B. S., Kaur, B., Babu, N., Sharma, A. & Cunill, J. M. (2022). Current status of pesticide effects on environment, human health and it’s eco-friendly management as bioremediation: A comprehensive review. Frontiers in Microbiology, 2833.
Rasool, S., Rasool, T., & Gani, K. M. (2022). A review of interactions of pesticides within various interfaces of intrinsic and organic residue amended soil environment. Chemical Engineering Journal Advances, 11, 100301.

Raymond C, (2016). Effects of pH on Pesticides. Green House Product News. https://gpnmag.com/article/effects-of-ph-on-pesticides/. [Access online 4 October 2023].

Sinha, V. S., Kumar, N., & Pathak, R. N. (2015). Effect of Chemical Pesticides on Chlorophyll Content of Vicia faba L. Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Sciences, Vol. 5(1), 1-4.

Sharma, P., Jha, A. B., Dubey, R. S., & Pessarakli, M. (2012). Reactive oxygen species, oxidative damage, and antioxidative defense mechanism in plants under stressful conditions. Journal of botany, 2012, 1-26.

Shevela, D., Kern, J. F., Govindjee, G., Whitmarsh, J., & Messinger, J. (2021). Photosystem II. eLS, 2(7), 1-16.

Skouras, P. J., Darras, A. I., Mprokaki, M., Demopoulos, V., Margaritopoulos, J. T., Delis, C., & Stathas, G. J. (2021). Toxicity, Sublethal and Low Dose Effects of Imidacloprid and Deltamethrin on the Aphidophagous Predator Ceratomegilla undecimnotata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Insects, 12, 696. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12080696

Silver, K. S., Du, Y., Nomura, Y., Oliveira, E. E., Salgado, V. L., Zhorov, B. S., & Dong, K. (2014). Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels as Insecticide Targets. Advances in Insect Physiology, 46, 389–433. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-417010-0.00005-7

Tomé, H.V., Pascini, T.V., Dângelo, R.A., Guedes, R. N & Martins, G. F. (2014). Survival and swimming behavior of insecticide-exposed larvae and pupae of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Parasites Vectors 7, 195. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-7-195
Tudi, M., Daniel Ruan, H., Wang, L., Lyu, J., Sadler, R., Connell, D.& Phung, D. T. (2021). Agriculture development, pesticide application and its impact on the environment. International journal of environmental research and public health, 18(3), 1112.
Voroney, P., & Sharpe, P. (2019). Chapter 4 - Soils for Horse Pasture Management. In Horse Pasture Management. Academic Press: pp 65-79. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-812919-7.00004-4

Wamonje, F. O., Tungadi, T. D., Murphy, A. M., Pate, A. E., Woodcock, C., Caulfield, J. C., Mutuku, J. M., Cunniffe, N. J., Bruce, T. J. A., Gilligan, C. A., Pickett, J. A., & Carr, J. P. (2020). Three Aphid-Transmitted Viruses Encourage Vector Migration from Infected Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Plants Through a Combination of Volatile and Surface Cues. Frontiers in Plant Science, 11. 613772. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.613772
Wang, F., Wang, Q., Adams, C.A., Sun, Y., & Zhang, S. (2022). Effects of microplastics on soil properties: current knowledge and future perspectives. J. Hazard Mater, 424, 127531.
Worthing, C.R. & Walker, S.B. (1987) The Pesticide Manual - A World Compendium, 8th ed., Thornton Heath, British Crop Protection Council, pp. 234–235.
Xuang, X., Le, L.S. & Nakatsu, C. 2000. Impact of animal waste lagoon effluents on chloropyriphos degradation in soils. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 19, 2864-2870.
Xue, N., Zhang, D., & Xu, X. (2006). Organochlorinated pesticide multiresidues in surface sediments from Beijing Guanting reservoir. Water Research, 40(2), 183-194.
Yar, M. S., & Akhter, M. W. (2009). Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of substituted oxadiazole and thiadiazole derivatives. Polish Pharmaceutical Society, 66(4), 393-397.

Zheryakov, E. V and Zheryakova, Y. I. (2021). Changes in the content of chlorophyll in leaves when using pesticides and microfertilizers. Earth and Environmental Science, 843, 012043. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/843/1/012043

Zhang, G., Liu, X., Sun, K., Zhao, Y., & Lin, C. (2010). Sorption of tetracycline to sediments and soils: assessing the roles of pH, the presence of cadmium and properties of sediments and soils. Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering in China, 4, 421-429.
How to Cite
HASHIM, saiyidah nafisah. EFFECT OF DELTAMETHRIN INSECTICIDE TOWARDS Capsicum frutescens. Journal of Academia, [S.l.], v. 12, n. 1, p. 65-74, apr. 2024. ISSN 2289-6368. Available at: <https://myjms.mohe.gov.my/index.php/joa/article/view/24296>. Date accessed: 24 july 2024.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.