Safety Awareness among Office Workers and its Relations to Safety Attitude, Safety Culture and Safety Climate in Oil and Gas Industries
Previous research found out that 46.0 percent office workers worked in a very bad condition or unsafe workplace. During the preliminary interview with one of the companies in the oil and gas industry, the manager admitted that the level of safety awareness of the office workers was low as most actions were focused on the plantation site and rarely on the office workers even though there were also some minor accidents that had occurred in the office. Another study also mentioned that the level of safety awareness of oil and gas industry in Malaysia is low, therefore, this research aimed to study about safety awareness in the oil and gas industry. Three factors had been identified as being relevant to safety awareness namely safety culture, safety attitude and safety climate. This research also aimed to examine the relationship between safety awareness, safety culture, safety climate and safety attitude. Two hundred and twelve (212) questionnaires were distributed to oil and gas office workers, and 157 were completed and analyzed. Two out of three variables were significant: safety climate and safety attitude, and one variable, safety culture, was not significant. For future research, this study suggested a bigger sample size and qualitative data for an in-depth study.
Ajmal, M., Isha, A. S. N., Nordin, S. M., Rasheed, S., Al-Mekhlafi, A. A., Naji, G. M. A. (2022). Safety management and safety outcomes in oil and gas industry in Malaysia: Safety compliance as a mediator. Process Safety Progress, 41(S1), S10-S16. https://doi.org/10.1002/prs.12345
Attwood, D., Khan, F., Veitch, B. (2006). Occupational accident models – where have we been and where are we going. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 19(6), 664-682. DOI: 10.1016/j.jlp.2006.02.001
Barling, J., Loughin, C., & Kelloway, E. K. (2002). Development and test of a model linking safety-
specific transformational leadership and occupational safety. Journal of Applied Psychology,
87(3), 488-496. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.87.3.488.
Borneo Post Online. (2016, November). DOSH: Fewer work related accidents this year. Borneo Post Online.https://www.theborneopost.com/2016/11/21/dosh-fewer-work-related-accidents-this-year/.
Cheyne, A. J., Oliver, A., Cox, S. J. & Tomas, J. M. (2002). The architecture of employee attitudes to
safety in the manufacturing sector. Personnel Review Select, 31(6), 649-670.
Choudhry, R. M., Fang, D., Mohamed, S. (2007). The nature of safety culture in manufacturing industry. International Journal of Humanity Social Science, 2, 176-183.
Department of Statistics Official Portal, Malaysia. (2022). Big data analytics: National
occupational accident statistics. https://www.dosm.gov.my/v1/index.php
Dejoy, D. M. (2005). Behavior change versus cultural change: Divergent approaches to managing workplace safety. Safety Science, 43(2), 105-129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2005.02.001
Dodge, R. B. (2011). A transformative learning perspective on workplace safety. National-Louis University. https://newprairiepress.org/aerc/2011/papers/26/
Dollard, M., & Knott, V. (2004). Incorporating psychosocial issues into our conceptual models of OHS. Journal of Occupational Health Safety, 20, 345-348.
Eagly, A. H., & Chaiken, S. (1993). The psychology of attitudes (xxii ed.). Orlando, FL, US: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers.
Ibrahim, I. I., Noor, S. M., Nasirun, N., & Ahmad, Z. (2012). Safety in the office: Does it matter to the staff? Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 50, 730-740. https://pdf.sciencedirectassets.com
Ifelebuegu, A. O., Martins, O. A., Theophilus, S. C., & Arewa, A. O. (2019). The role of emotional intelligence factors in workers’ occupational health and safety performance – a case study of the petroleum industry, Safety MDPI, 5(2), 30. https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5020030
Jones, J. M. (2009). Safety in the workplace: An investigation into the perceptions of a behavioral safety modification process in an industrial manufacturing setting. Nova Southeastern University.
Kanikas, N., Melis, D. J., & Kourousis, K. I. (2018). The balance between safety and productivity and
its relationship with human factors and safety awareness and communication in aircraft
manufacturing. Safety and Health at Work, 9(3), 257-264.
Makin, A. M., & Winder, C. (2010). Managing hazards in the workplace using organisational safety
management systems: A safe place, safe person, safe systems approach. Journal of Risk Research,
12(3-4), 329-343. https://doi.org/10.1080/13669870802658998
Manitoba. (2022). Manitoba workplace safety and health act, and regulation.
Naji, G. M. A., Isha, A. S. N., Alzoraiki, M., Al-Mekhlafi, A. A., Sharafaddin, O., & Saleem, M. S. (2020). Impact of safety culture and psychosocial hazard on safety performance among upstream employees in Malaysia at Oil and Gas industry. Solid State Technology, 63(6), 4120-4126. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Gehad-Naji/publication/345067410
Niciejewska, M. & Kač, S. M. (2019). The work environment management in the aspect of the safety
shaping at the administration and office workplace. SCIENDO, CzOTO, 1(1), 205-210.
Nolan, D. P. (2011). Handbook of fire and explosion protection engineering principles for oil, gas, chemical and related facilities. Elsevier Inc: Burlington, MA. USA
Noor, A. I. S., Ismail, Z., & Yasin, S. M. (2022). Safety culture, safety climate and safety performance
in healthcare facilities: A systematic review. Safety Science, 147. 10.1016/j.ssci.2021.105624
Ostrom, L., Wilhelmsen, C., & Kaplan, B. (1993). Assessing safety culture. Nuclear Safety, 34(2),
Salmon, P. M., & Stanlon, N. A. (2013). Situation awareness and safety: Contribution or confusion? Situation awareness and safety editorial. Safety Science. 56(1-5).
Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. (2016). Research methods for business: A skill-building approach. Chichester: Wiley.
Thory, K. (2016). Developing meaningfulness at work through emotional intelligence training. International Journal of Training and Development, 20(1), 58-77. doi: 10.1111/ijtd.12069
Walker, G. H. M., Raffertu, L. A., & Stanton, N. A. (2012). The human factors of fratricide. Ashgate Publishing, LTD.
Wiegmann, D. A., Zhang, H., Von Thaden, T. L., Sharma, G., & Gibbons, A. M. (2004). Safety culture: An integrative review. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 14(2), 117-134. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327108ijap1402_1
Xu, X., Le, N., He, Y., &Yao, X. (2020). Ream conscientiousness, team safety climate and individual
safety performance: A cross level mediation model. Journal Business Psychology, 35(4), 505-517.
LICENSE OF PUBLISHING RIGHTS
I hereby grant to the Journal exclusive publishing and distribution license in the manuscript identified above and any tables, illustrations or other material submitted for publication as part of the manuscript (the “Article”) in print, electronic and all other media (whether now known or later developed), in any form, in all languages, throughout the world, for the full term of copyright, and the right to license others to do the same, effective when the article is accepted for publication. This license includes the right to enforce the rights granted hereunder against third parties. Supplemental Materials With respect to Supplemental Materials that I wish to make accessible through a link in the Article or on a site or through a service of the Journal, the Journal shall be entitled to publish, post, reformat, index, archive, make available and link to such Supplemental Materials on a non-exclusive basis in all forms and media (whether now known or later developed), and permit others to do so. “Supplemental Materials” shall mean additional materials that are not an intrinsic part of the Article, including but not limited to experimental data, e-components, encodings and software, and enhanced graphical, illustrative, video and audio material.
SCHOLARLY COMMUNICATIONS RIGHTS
I understand that I retain the copyright in the Article and that no rights in patents, trademarks or other intellectual property rights are transferred to the Journal. As the author of the article, I understand that I shall have: (i) the same rights to reuse the Article as those allowed to third party users of the Article under the CC-BY-NC-ND license, as well as (ii) the right to use the Article in a subsequent compilation of my works or to extend the Article to book-length form, to include the article in a thesis or dissertation, or otherwise to use or re-use portions or excerpts in other work, for both commercial and non-commercial purposes. Except for such uses, I understand that the license of publishing rights I have granted to the Journal gives the Journal the exclusive right to make or sub-license commercial use.
The publisher will apply the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 International License (CC-BY-NC-ND) to the Article where it publishes the Article in the journal on its online platforms on an Open Access basis. For further information, see http://www.elsevier.com/about/open-access/open-access-options. The CC-BY-NC-ND license allows users to copy and distribute the Article, provided this is not done for commercial purposes and further does not permit distribution of the Article if it is changed or edited in any way, and provided the user gives appropriate credit (with a link to the formal publication through the relevant DOI), provides a link to the license, and that the licensor is not represented as endorsing the use made of the work.
The full details of the license are available at https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.
Articles may sometimes be accepted for publication but later rejected in the publication process, even in some cases after public posting in “Articles in Press” form, in which case all rights will revert to the author (see http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy).
REVISIONS AND ADDENDA
I understand that no revisions, additional terms or addenda to this License Agreement can be accepted without the Journal’s express written consent.
I understand that this License Agreement supersedes any previous agreements I have entered into with the Journal in relation to the Article from the date hereof.
The publisher shall publish and distribute the Article with the appropriate copyright notice.
AUTHOR REPRESENTATIONS/ETHICS AND DISCLOSURE
I affirm the Author Representations noted below and confirm that I have reviewed and complied with the relevant Instructions to Authors, Ethics in Publishing policy, Declarations of Interest disclosure and information for authors from countries affected by sanctions (Iran, Cuba, Sudan, Burma, Syria, or Crimea). Please note that some journals may require that all co-authors sign and submit Declarations of Interest disclosure forms. I am also aware of the publisher’s policies with respect to retractions and withdrawal.
1. The Article I have submitted to the journal for review is original, has been written by the stated authors and has not been previously published.
2. The Article was not submitted for review to another journal while under review by this journal and will not be submitted to any other journal.
3. The Article and the Supplemental Materials do not infringe any copyright, violate any other intellectual property, privacy or other rights of any person or entity, or contain any libellous or other unlawful matter.
4. I have obtained written permission from copyright owners for any excerpts from copyrighted works that are included and have credited the sources in the Article or the Supplemental Materials.
5. Except as expressly set out in this License Agreement, the Article is not subject to any prior rights or licenses and, if my or any of my coauthors’ institution has a policy that might restrict my ability to grant the rights required by this License Agreement (taking into account the Scholarly communication rights permitted hereunder), a written waiver of that policy has been obtained.
6. If I and/or any of my co-authors reside in Iran, Cuba, Sudan, Burma, Syria, or Crimea, the Article has been prepared in a personal, academic or research capacity and not as an official representative or otherwise on behalf of the relevant government.
7. If I am using any personal details or images of patients, research subjects or other individuals, I have obtained all consents required by applicable law and complied with the publisher’s policies relating to the use of such images or personal information.
8. Any software contained in the Supplemental Materials is free from viruses, contaminants or worms.
9. If the Article or any of the Supplemental Materials were prepared jointly with other authors, I have informed the co-author(s) of the terms of this License Agreement and that I am signing on their behalf as their agent, and I am authorized to do so.