Safety Awareness among Office Workers and its Relations to Safety Attitude, Safety Culture and Safety Climate in Oil and Gas Industries

  • Noor Malinasari Ali Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Terengganu
  • Wan Afiq Aminin Wan Fekri Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Terengganu
  • Kardina Kamaruddin Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Kedah
  • Rahayu Izwani Borhanuddin Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Johor
  • Suzila Mat Salleh Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Terengganu
  • Hasmida Mohd Noor Faculty of Business Management, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Terengganu, Kampus Dungun, 23000, Dungun, Terengganu, Malaysia
  • Hasmi Mokhlas Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Melaka


Previous research found out that 46.0 percent office workers worked in a very bad condition or unsafe workplace. During the preliminary interview with one of the companies in the oil and gas industry, the manager admitted that the level of safety awareness of the office workers was low as most actions were focused on the plantation site and rarely on the office workers even though there were also some minor accidents that had occurred in the office. Another study also mentioned that the level of safety awareness of oil and gas industry in Malaysia is low, therefore, this research aimed to study about safety awareness in the oil and gas industry. Three factors had been identified as being relevant to safety awareness namely safety culture, safety attitude and safety climate. This research also aimed to examine the relationship between safety awareness, safety culture, safety climate and safety attitude. Two hundred and twelve (212) questionnaires were distributed to oil and gas office workers, and 157 were completed and analyzed. Two out of three variables were significant: safety climate and safety attitude, and one variable, safety culture, was not significant. For future research, this study suggested a bigger sample size and qualitative data for an in-depth study.



Al-Mekhlafi, A. A., Isha, A. S. N., Chileshe, N., Abdulrab, M., Kineber, A. F., Ajmal, M. (2021). Impact of safety culture implementation on driving performance among oil and gas tanker drivers: A partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) approach. Sustainability, 13(16), 8886.
Ajmal, M., Isha, A. S. N., Nordin, S. M., Rasheed, S., Al-Mekhlafi, A. A., Naji, G. M. A. (2022). Safety management and safety outcomes in oil and gas industry in Malaysia: Safety compliance as a mediator. Process Safety Progress, 41(S1), S10-S16.
Attwood, D., Khan, F., Veitch, B. (2006). Occupational accident models – where have we been and where are we going. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 19(6), 664-682. DOI: 10.1016/j.jlp.2006.02.001
Barling, J., Loughin, C., & Kelloway, E. K. (2002). Development and test of a model linking safety-
specific transformational leadership and occupational safety. Journal of Applied Psychology,
87(3), 488-496. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.87.3.488.
Borneo Post Online. (2016, November). DOSH: Fewer work related accidents this year. Borneo Post Online.
Cheyne, A. J., Oliver, A., Cox, S. J. & Tomas, J. M. (2002). The architecture of employee attitudes to
safety in the manufacturing sector. Personnel Review Select, 31(6), 649-670.
Choudhry, R. M., Fang, D., Mohamed, S. (2007). The nature of safety culture in manufacturing industry. International Journal of Humanity Social Science, 2, 176-183.
Department of Statistics Official Portal, Malaysia. (2022). Big data analytics: National
occupational accident statistics.
Dejoy, D. M. (2005). Behavior change versus cultural change: Divergent approaches to managing workplace safety. Safety Science, 43(2), 105-129.
Dodge, R. B. (2011). A transformative learning perspective on workplace safety. National-Louis University.
Dollard, M., & Knott, V. (2004). Incorporating psychosocial issues into our conceptual models of OHS. Journal of Occupational Health Safety, 20, 345-348.
Eagly, A. H., & Chaiken, S. (1993). The psychology of attitudes (xxii ed.). Orlando, FL, US: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers.
Ibrahim, I. I., Noor, S. M., Nasirun, N., & Ahmad, Z. (2012). Safety in the office: Does it matter to the staff? Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 50, 730-740.
Ifelebuegu, A. O., Martins, O. A., Theophilus, S. C., & Arewa, A. O. (2019). The role of emotional intelligence factors in workers’ occupational health and safety performance – a case study of the petroleum industry, Safety MDPI, 5(2), 30.
Jones, J. M. (2009). Safety in the workplace: An investigation into the perceptions of a behavioral safety modification process in an industrial manufacturing setting. Nova Southeastern University.
Kanikas, N., Melis, D. J., & Kourousis, K. I. (2018). The balance between safety and productivity and
its relationship with human factors and safety awareness and communication in aircraft
manufacturing. Safety and Health at Work, 9(3), 257-264.
Makin, A. M., & Winder, C. (2010). Managing hazards in the workplace using organisational safety
management systems: A safe place, safe person, safe systems approach. Journal of Risk Research,
12(3-4), 329-343.
Manitoba. (2022). Manitoba workplace safety and health act, and regulation.
Naji, G. M. A., Isha, A. S. N., Alzoraiki, M., Al-Mekhlafi, A. A., Sharafaddin, O., & Saleem, M. S. (2020). Impact of safety culture and psychosocial hazard on safety performance among upstream employees in Malaysia at Oil and Gas industry. Solid State Technology, 63(6), 4120-4126.
Niciejewska, M. & Kač, S. M. (2019). The work environment management in the aspect of the safety
shaping at the administration and office workplace. SCIENDO, CzOTO, 1(1), 205-210.
Nolan, D. P. (2011). Handbook of fire and explosion protection engineering principles for oil, gas, chemical and related facilities. Elsevier Inc: Burlington, MA. USA
Noor, A. I. S., Ismail, Z., & Yasin, S. M. (2022). Safety culture, safety climate and safety performance
in healthcare facilities: A systematic review. Safety Science, 147. 10.1016/j.ssci.2021.105624
Ostrom, L., Wilhelmsen, C., & Kaplan, B. (1993). Assessing safety culture. Nuclear Safety, 34(2),
Salmon, P. M., & Stanlon, N. A. (2013). Situation awareness and safety: Contribution or confusion? Situation awareness and safety editorial. Safety Science. 56(1-5).
Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. (2016). Research methods for business: A skill-building approach. Chichester: Wiley.
Thory, K. (2016). Developing meaningfulness at work through emotional intelligence training. International Journal of Training and Development, 20(1), 58-77. doi: 10.1111/ijtd.12069
Walker, G. H. M., Raffertu, L. A., & Stanton, N. A. (2012). The human factors of fratricide. Ashgate Publishing, LTD.
Wiegmann, D. A., Zhang, H., Von Thaden, T. L., Sharma, G., & Gibbons, A. M. (2004). Safety culture: An integrative review. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 14(2), 117-134.
Xu, X., Le, N., He, Y., &Yao, X. (2020). Ream conscientiousness, team safety climate and individual
safety performance: A cross level mediation model. Journal Business Psychology, 35(4), 505-517.
How to Cite
ALI, Noor Malinasari et al. Safety Awareness among Office Workers and its Relations to Safety Attitude, Safety Culture and Safety Climate in Oil and Gas Industries. Jurnal Intelek, [S.l.], v. 18, n. 1, p. 1-8, jan. 2023. ISSN 2231-7716. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 22 sep. 2023. doi: