Dimensions of Sports and Recreational Service Quality Influencing Fitness Centre’s Member Satisfaction

  • Nooraini Mohamad Sheriff Universiti Teknologi MARA
  • Siti Zaleha Sahak Universiti Teknologi MARA
  • Fatin Nur Farisha Mohd Razali Universiti Teknologi MARA
  • Nellisa Nursyafira Mohd Fadzli Universiti Teknologi MARA
  • Nor Norita Japri Universiti Teknologi MARA


Fitness centres in Malaysia remain intensely competitive despite of the industry’s continuous growth. Many depend on recurring revenue streams to secure their market position. This has made, satisfaction of customers a prime importance to ensure their survival in the industry through the delivery of excellent service quality. Basing on this premise, four dimensions of Scale for Service Quality in Recreational Sport (SSQRS) influencing the satisfaction of fitness centre customers was examined. From a total of 113 questionnaires distributed to customers of a gym, all were returned with valid responses for analysis. Findings from the study affirmed that SSQRS dimensions were significantly related to customer satisfaction. Specifically, the outcome dimension demonstrated the greatest impact on satisfaction among customers of a fitness centre followed by physical environment quality and interaction quality. Thus, suggesting there is a need for fitness centres to continuously improve their physical environment quality and outcome quality through personalize workout routines, optimization of space with value-added service, and offer workout streaming to deliver satisfaction, long term revenue and continuous growth.



Achmad, S., Bambang, B. & Burhanuddin, B. (2021). Effects of service quality and customer satisfaction on loyalty of bank customers, Cogent Business & Management, 8:1. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311975.2021.1937847
Alexandris, K., Zahariadis, P., Tsorbatzoudis, C., & Grouios, G. (2004). An empirical investigation of the relationships among service quality, customer satisfaction and psychological commitment in a health club context. European Sport Management Quarterly, 4(1), 36-52. https://doi.org/10.1080/16184740408737466
BERNAMA (2021) Malaysia to move to COVID-19 endemic in October – Khairy. Retrieved 6 October 2021 from https://www.astroawani.com/berita-malaysia/malaysia-move-covid19-endemic-october-khairy-317309
Bitner, M. J. (1992). Servicescapes: The impact of physical surroundings on customers and employees. Journal of Marketing, 56(2), 57-71. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224299205600205
Brady, M. K., & Cronin Jr, J. J. (2001). Some new thoughts on conceptualizing perceived service quality: a hierarchical approach. Journal of Marketing, 65(3), 34-49. https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkg.
Brady, M. K., Robertson, C. J., & Cronin, J. J. (2001). Managing behavioral intentions in diverse cultural environments: An investigation of service quality, service value, and satisfaction for American and Ecuadorian fast-food customers. Journal of International Management, 7(2), 129-149. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1075-4253(00)00041-7
Chelladurai, P., & Chang, K. (2000). Targets and standards of quality in sport services. Sport Management Review, 3(1), 1-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1441-3523(00)70077-5
Chen, C.-F., & Tsai, D. (2007). How destination image and evaluative factors affect behavioral intentions? Tourism Management, 28(4), 1115-1122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2006.07.007
Cristea, I. G., & Mocuta, D. (2018). Customer relationship management. Proceedings of the 31st International Business Information Management Association Conference, IBIMA 2018: Innovation Management and Education Excellence through Vision 2020. Milan, Italy. https://doi.org/10.33619/2414-2948/51/21
Dabholkar, P. A., Thorpe, D. I., & Rentz, J. O. (1996). A measure of service quality for retail stores: scale development and validation. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 24(1), 3. https://doi.org/10.1177/009207039602400101
DellaVigna, S., & Malmendier, U. (2006). Paying not to go to the gym. American Economic Review, 96(3), 694-719. https://doi.org/10.1257/aer.96.3.694
Dhurup, M., & Mokoena, B. (2017). The influence of service quality variables in predicting satisfaction and behavioural intentions in a university campus recreation setting. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 6(1), 1-19.
Echeverri, P., & Salomonson, N. (2017). Bi-directional and stratified demeanour in value forming service encounter interactions. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 36, 93-102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2017.01.007
Eirini Peitzika, Sofia Chatzi & Dimitra Kissa (2020): Service quality expectations in the fitness center context: A validation of the expectations component of the SERVQUAL Scale in Greece, Services Marketing Quarterly, 41 (2), 89-104. https://doi.org/10.1080/15332969.2020.1742977
Gonçalves, C., Biscaia, R., Correia, A., & Diniz, A. (2014). An examination of intentions of recommending fitness centers by user members. Motriz: Revista de Educação Física, 20(4), 384-391. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1980-65742014000400004
Grönroos, C. (1984). A service quality model and its marketing implications. European Journal of Marketing. https://doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000004784
Hair, J. F. Jr., Babin, B., Money, A. H., & Samouel, P. (2003). Essential of Business Research Methods. John Wiley & Sons. Inc., United States of America. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315716862
Heinonen, K., & Strandvik, T. (2015). Customer-dominant logic: Foundations and implications. Journal of Services Marketing, 29(6/7), 472–484. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSM-02-2015-0096
Hirschmann, R. (2021) Statista. (n.d.) Frequency of going to the gym in Malaysia 2020. Retrieved 6, October, 2021 from https://www.statista.com/statistics/1183027/malaysia-frequency-of-going-to-the-gym/
Howat, G., Absher, J., Crilley, G., & Milne, I. (1996). Measuring customer service quality in sports and leisure centres. Managing Leisure, 1(2), 77-89. https://doi.org/10.1080/136067196376456
Hsieh, Y.-C., & Hiang, S.-T. (2004). A study of the impacts of service quality on relationship quality in search-experience-credence services. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 15(1), 43-58. https://doi.org/10.1080/1478336032000149090
Khuluq, A., Hasiholan, L. B., & Warso, M. M. (2016). Effect of price, facilities and quality of service loyalty and satisfaction of visitors as intervening variable in sport center in Semarang. Journal of Management, 2(2).
Kim, D., & Kim, S. Y. (1995). QUESC: An instrument for assessing the service quality of sport centers in Korea. Journal of Sport Management, 9(2), 208-220. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.9.2.208
Kim, K. T., Bae, J., Kim, J.-C., Lee, S., & Kim, K. T. (2016). The Servicescape in the fitness center: measuring fitness center’s services. International Journal of Sport Management Recreation & Tourism, 21(1), 1-20. https://doi.org/10.5199/ijsmart-1791-874X-21a
Ko, Y. J., & Pastore, D. L. (2004). Current issues and conceptualizations of service quality in the recreation sport industry. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 13(3), 158-166.
Ko, Y. J., & Pastore, D. L. (2005). A Hierarchial model of service quality for the recreational sport industry. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 14(2), 84-97.
Ko, Y. J., & Pastore, D. L. (2007). An instrument to assess customer perceptions of service quality and satisfaction in campus recreation programs. Recreational Sports Journal, 31(1), 34-42. https://doi.org/10.1123/rsj.31.1.34
Kotler, P. (1999). Marketing Management: The Millennium Edition. Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ. https://doi.org/10.4236/me.2016.712127
Kyle, G. T., Theodorakis, N. D., Karageorgiou, A., & Lafazani, M. (2010). The effect of service quality on customer loyalty within the context of ski resorts. Journal of Park & Recreation Administration, 28(1).
Lam, E. T., Zhang, J. J., & Jensen, B. E. (2005). Service Quality Assessment Scale (SQAS): An instrument for evaluating service quality of health-fitness clubs. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 9(2), 79-111. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327841mpee0902_2
Natalisa, D., & Subroto, B. (2003). Effects of management commitment on service quality to increase customer satisfaction of domestic airlines in Indonesia. Singapore Management Review, 25(1), 85-105.
Novokreshchenova, O. A., Novokreshchenova, N. A., & Terehin, S. E. (2016). Improving bank’s customer service on the basis of quality management tools. European Research Studies Journal, XIX(3B), 19–38. https://doi.org/10.35808/ersj/562
Nunnally, J. (1978). Psychometric Theory (2nd ed.) McGraw-Hill. Hillsdale, NJ, 416.
Oliver, R. L. (1977). Effect of expectation and disconfirmation on postexposure product evaluations: An alternative interpretation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62(4), 480. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.62.4.480
Papadimitriou, D. A., & Karteroliotis, K. (2000). The service quality expectations in private sport and fitness centers: A reexamination of the factor structure. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 9(3), 157-164.
Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Berry, L. (1988). SERVQUAL: A multiple-item scale for measuring consumer perceptions of service quality. Journal of Retailing, 64(1), 12-40.
Rust, R. T., & Oliver, R. L. (1993). Service Quality: New Directions in Theory and Practice. Sage Publications. https://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452229102
Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. (2016). Research Methods for Business: A Skill Building Approach. John Wiley & Sons. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1104881
Serra, P., Surujlal, J., & Redda, E. (2016). Perceptions of service quality and satisfaction of High Performance Programmes (HPP): A case study of a comprehensive university in South Africa. International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanity Studies, 8(1), 168-186.
Soleymani, M., Zarei, A., Tojari, F., & Ghafouri, F. (2012). A study of the relationship between the quality of services and customers’ satisfaction with the recreational sport programs with regard to the moderating role of identity. World Applied Sciences Journal, 16(10), 1438-1444.
Statista. (2019) Fitness- Malaysia. Retrieved 6 October 2021 from https://www.statista.com/outlook/313/122/fitness/malaysia
Subramaniam, P. (2019). Strong is the new sexy. Retrieved 7 October 2021 from https://www.theedgemarkets.com/article/strong-new-sexy
Teik, D. O. L. (2015). Enhancing the experience of needs satisfaction through service engagement: A case of commercial fitness centers in Malaysia. Journal of Global Scholars of Marketing Science, 25(2), 109-121. https://doi.org/10.1080/21639159.2015.1012808
Ulseth, A.B. & Seippel, O.N. (2011). Fitness, Class and Culture: Social Inequality in Fitness. Retrieved 6 October 2021, from https://wwwidrottsforum.org/articles/ulseth_seippel111123.pdf
Walsh, K. (2018). IHRSA Asia-Pasific Health Club Report. Health Club Management, 258, 102.
Westerbeek, H. M., & Shilbury, D. (2003). A conceptual model for sport services marketing research: Integrating quality, value and satisfaction. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJSMS-05-01-2003-B002
Wilson, A., Zeithaml, V. A., Bitner, M. J., & Gremler, D. D. (Eds.). (2016). Services Marketing: Integrating Customer Focus Across the Firm. McGraw-Hill Education.
Wu, Y.-C., Tsai, C.-S., Hsiung, H.-W., & Chen, K.-Y. (2015). Linkage between frontline employee service competence scale and customer perceptions of service quality. Journal of Services Marketing. 29(3), 224-234. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSM-02-2014-0058
How to Cite
MOHAMAD SHERIFF, Nooraini et al. Dimensions of Sports and Recreational Service Quality Influencing Fitness Centre’s Member Satisfaction. Jurnal Intelek, [S.l.], v. 17, n. 2, p. 168-179, july 2022. ISSN 2682-9223. Available at: <https://myjms.mohe.gov.my/index.php/intelek/article/view/18202>. Date accessed: 05 feb. 2023. doi: https://doi.org/10.24191/ji.v17i2.18202.