• Zi Yi Tan Faculty of Engineering and Green Technology, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Perak, MALAYSIA
  • Kazuya Shide Department of Architecture, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo, JAPAN
  • Hirotake Kanisawa Department of Architecture, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo, JAPAN
  • Naoto Mine SIT Research Laboratories, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo, JAPAN


The construction industry has been plagued with numerous safety and health issues especially the high fatality rate in construction industry is alarming in Malaysia as a developing country. The fatal rate recorded 6.30 per 100,000 workers died in the Malaysia construction industry, which remains the highest among the rest of the industries; it is important to find out the relevant issues that caused the construction accidents. To address the gaps, the aim of the study to understand the employment situation of foreign workers and the current practices on safety and health on construction sites. A survey was conducted to 116 construction site personnel from different grade of contractor firms, provide an understanding on the current situation on safety and health, factors contributed to construction accidents, barriers of implementation of Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) practices at construction site with their perspectives. Statistically, the problems related to safety and health management on construction sites on communication with foreign workers, sufficiency of safety and health training contents were identified. With the uses of Levene’s test and Kruskal-Wallis test to find out the similarity’s perspectives between different scales of construction companies in Malaysia. This study aims to provide a useful information and a comprehensive overview on the construction accidents related issues for future application of safety and health programme on construction industry research.


Abdul-Rahman, H., Wang, C., Wood, L. C., & Low, S. F. (2012). Negative impact induced by foreign workers: Evidence in Malaysian construction sector. Habitat International, 36(4), 433–443. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2012.03.002
Adnan, A. S., & Baharum, Z.A. (2020). A conceptual framework for healthy construction workplace: A literature review. Malaysia Construction Research (MCRJ) Special Issue Vol. 10(2), 52-62.
Ammad, S., Alaloul, W. S., Saad, S., & Qureshi, A. H. (2021). Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) usage in Construction Projects: A Systematic Review and Smart PLS Approach. Ain Shams Engineering Journal, xxxx. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asej.2021.04.001
Aminbakhsh, S., Gunduz, M., & Sonmez, R. (2013). Safety risk assessment using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) during planning and budgeting of construction projects. Journal of Safety Research, 46, 99–105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsr.2013.05.003
Andolfo, C., & Sadeghpour, F. (2015). A Probabilistic Accident Prediction Model for Construction Sites. Procedia Engineering, 123, 15–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2015.10.052
Ayob, A., Shaari, A. A., Zaki, M. F. M., & Munaaim, M. A. C. (2018). Fatal occupational injuries in the Malaysian construction sector-causes and accidental agents. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 140(1). https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/140/1/012095
Buckley, M., Zendel, A., Biggar, J., Frederiksen, L., & Wells, J. (2016). Migrant Work & Employment in the Construction Sector. International Labour Office. Geneva.
Buniya, M. K., Othman, I., Sunindijo, R. Y., Kineber, A. F., Mussi, E., & Ahmad, H. (2021). Barriers to safety program implementation in the construction industry. Ain Shams Engineering Journal, 12(1), 65–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asej.2020.08.002
Choudhry, R. M., & Fang, D. (2008). Why operatives engage in unsafe work behavior: Investigating factors on construction sites. Safety Science, 46(4), 566–584. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2007.06.027
Creswell, J. (2014). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. 4th ed. Sage Publications, California.
Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH). (2022). Occupational Accident Statistics. Available online at https://www.dosh.gov.my/index.php/statistic-v/occupational-accident-statistics (Access 09/01/2022)
Department of Statistics Malaysia. (2021). Big Data Analytics: National occupational Accident Statistics 2020. Available online at https://www.dosm.gov.my/v1/index.php?r=column/cthemeByCat&cat=492&bul_id=MkRoQ2IyZ0JkdElIZ0JidUhpaWxydz09&menu_id=WjJGK0Z5bTk1ZElVT09yUW1tRG41Zz09
Fan, D., Zhu, C. J., Timming, A. R., Su, Y., Huang, X., & Lu, Y. (2020). Using the past to map out the future of occupational health and safety research: where do we go from here? International Journal of Human Resource Management, 31(1), 90–127. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2019.1657167
Fardaniah, S., Aziz, A., & Osman, F. (2018). Does compulsory training improve occupational safety and health implementation ? The case of Malaysian. Safety Science, July, 0–1. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2018.07.012
Fellows, R., & Liu, A. (2008). Research Methods for Construction. 3rd ed. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK.
Gibb, A., Hide, S., Haslam, R., Gyi, D., Pavitt, T., Atkinson, S., Duff, R., & Cheung, E. (2009). Findings from a research study of construction safety in Hong Kong Accidents related to fall of person. https://doi.org/10.1108/17260530910974952
Goh, Y. M., & Chua, D. (2013). Neural network analysis of construction safety management systems: a case study in Singapore. Construction Management and Economics, 31(5), 460–470. https://doi.org/10.1080/01446193.2013.797095
Gurmu, A. T. (2019). Identifying and prioritizing safety practices affecting construction labour productivity: An empirical study. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 68(8), 1457–1474. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJPPM-10-2018-0349
Hallowell, M. R., & Gambatese, J. A. (2010). Population and Initial Validation of a Formal Model for Construction Safety Risk Management. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 136(9), 981–990. https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)co.1943-7862.0000204
Hamid, A. R. A., Noor Azmi, M. R. A., Aminudin, E., Jaya, R. P., Zakaria, R., Zawawi, A. M. M., Yahya, K., Haron, Z., Yunus, R., & Saar, C. C. (2019). Causes of fatal construction accidents in Malaysia. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 220(1). https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/220/1/012044
Heinrich, H. W. (1931). Industrial Accident Prevention: A Scientific Approach, McGraw-Hill, New York (1931).
Heinrich, H. W., and Peterson, D. N. R. (1980). Industrial Accident Prevention: A Safety Management Approac’, Fifth Edition. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1980.
Hoła, B., & Szóstak, M. (2015). Analysis of the State of the Accident Rate in the Construction Industry in European Union Countries. Archives of Civil Engineering, 61(4), 19–34. https://doi.org/10.1515/ace-2015-0033
Huang, X., & Hinze, J. (2006). Owner’s Role in Construction Safety: Guidance Model. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 132(2), 174–181. https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)0733-9364(2006)132:2(174)
Ismail, R., Palliyaguru, R., Karunasena, G., & Othman, N. A. (2018). Health and safety (H&S) challenges confronted by foreign workers in the Malaysian construction industry: A background study. The 7th World Construction Symposium, July, 277–287.
Ismail, R., & Yuliyusman, F. (2014). Foreign labour on Malaysian growth. Journal of Economic Integration, 29(4), 657–675. https://doi.org/10.11130/jei.2014.29.4.657
Jo, B. W., Lee, Y. S., Kim, J. H., and Khan, M. A. (2017). Trend analysis of construction industrial accidents in Korea from 2011 to 2015. Sustainability (Switzerland), 9(8). https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081297
Khosravi, Y., Asilian-Mahabadi, H., Hajizadeh, E., Hassanzadeh-Rangi, N., Bastani, H., & Behzadan, A. H. (2014). Factors influencing unsafe behaviors and accidents on construction sites: A review. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 20(1), 111–125. https://doi.org/10.1080/10803548.2014.11077023
Kogi, K. (2002). Work improvement and occupational safety and health management systems: Common features and research needs. Industrial Health, 40(2), 121–133. https://doi.org/10.2486/indhealth.40.121
Konno, Y. (2018). Relationship between construction performance evaluation and contractor characteristics in Japan. Cogent Business and Management, 5(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311975.2018.1486169
Meng, X., & Gallagher, B. (2012). The impact of incentive mechanisms on project performance. International Journal of Project Management, 30(3), 352–362. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2011.08.006
Mohd Najib, I. Z., Mohd Nordin, R., Mohd Ahnuar, E., & Mohd Sukor, K. (2019). Malaysian as the Component of Labour Force for Construction Industry in Malaysia. MATEC Web of Conferences, 266, 01007. https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201926601007
Muhamad Zaini, N. Z., Mat Salleh, M. A., Fikri Hasmori, M., & Haslinda Abas, N. (2020). Effect of Accident Due to Fall from Height at Construction Sites in Malaysia. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 498(1). https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/498/1/012106
Nadhim, E. A., Hon, C., Xia, B., Stewart, I., & Fang, D. (2016). Falls from height in the construction industry: A critical review of the scientific literature. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13(7). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13070638
Nduka, D. O., Sotunbo, A. S., Ibrahim, I. A., Joshua, O., Tunji-Olayeni, P. E., & Akinbile, B. (2018). Survey dataset on professional’s perception on site supervision and project performance. Data in Brief, 18, 1758–1764. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2018.04.099
Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA). (1994). Act 514. Law of Malaysia.
Peng, L., & Chan, A. H. S. (2020). Adjusting work conditions to meet the declined health and functional capacity of older construction workers in Hong Kong. Safety Science, 127(October 2019), 104711. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2020.104711
Sousa, V., Almeida, N. M., & Dias, L. A. (2015). Risk-based management of occupational safety and health in the construction industry - Part 2: Quantitative model. Safety Science, 74, 184–194. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2015.01.003
Taufek, F. H. B. M., Zulkifle, Z. B., & Kadir, S. Z. B. A. (2016). Safety and Health Practices and Injury Management in Manufacturing Industry. Procedia Economics and Finance, 35(October 2015), 705–712. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2212-5671(16)00088-5
Williams, P. S. (2017). Analysis of Fatal Building Construction Accidents: Cases and Causes. Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science and Technology (JMEST), 4(8), 2458–9403. www.jmest.orgJMESTN423523718030
Winge, S., Albrechtsen, E., & Mostue, B. A. (2019). Causal factors and connections in construction accidents. Safety Science, 112(October 2018), 130–141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2018.10.015
Xu, Q., & Xu, K. (2021). Analysis of the characteristics of fatal accidents in the construction industry in china based on statistical data. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(4), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18042162
Yiu, N. S. N., Chan, D. W. M., Shan, M., & Sze, N. N. (2019). Implementation of safety management system in managing construction projects: Benefits and obstacles. Safety Science, 117(March), 23–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2019.03.027
Yiu, N. S. N., Sze, N. N., & Chan, D. W. M. (2018). Implementation of safety management systems in Hong Kong construction industry – A safety practitioner’s perspective. Journal of Safety Research, 64, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsr.2017.12.011
Zalk, D. M., Spee, T., Gillen, M., Lentz, T. J., Garrod, A., Evans, P., & Swuste, P. (2011). Review of qualitative approaches for the construction industry: Designing a risk management toolbox. Safety and Health at Work, 2(2), 105–121. https://doi.org/10.5491/SHAW.2011.2.2.105
Zin, S. M., & Ismail, F. (2012). Employers ’ Behavioural Safety Compliance Factors toward Occupational , Safety and Health Improvement in the Construction Industry. 36(June 2011), 742–751. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.03.081
How to Cite
TAN, Zi Yi et al. FACTORS IN CONSTRUCTION ACCIDENTS AND THE BARRIERS OF SAFETY PRACTICES: PERSPECTIVES OF CONTRACTORS. International Journal of Social Science Research, [S.l.], v. 4, n. 3, p. 1-13, sep. 2022. ISSN 2710-6276. Available at: <https://myjms.mohe.gov.my/index.php/ijssr/article/view/19655>. Date accessed: 03 dec. 2022.