• Mohd Faisal Mahmad Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Batu Pahat, MALAYSIA
  • Mei Heong, Yee Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Batu Pahat, MALAYSIA
  • Tze Kiong, Tee Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Batu Pahat, MALAYSIA
  • Nurulwahida Azid Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, MALAYSIA


Higher order thinking skills (HOTS) allows students to view concepts holistically and produce an effective thinker. To improve mathematics teaching often rely on the continuous professional development of teachers as a way to achieve this goal. Although the mastery of the HOTS has been emphasized in the curriculum in 2013, the level of readiness, knowledge and engagement of the school, teachers and pupils still at a low level. This is due to teacher-centered teaching is still practiced in the classroom. This shows that this teacher-centered teaching style will limit pupils’ knowledge and thinking skills especially in higher level thinking. It is expected that the integration of teachers' teaching styles and Anderson dan Krathwohl Taxonomy can be applied for mastery of student mathematics achievement. Therefore, the effectiveness of teaching and learning need to improvements. As a consequence, in order to enhance students’ mathematical achievement, 21st century skills with the ability HOTS, creative and innovative can be improved among the pupils and to produce a generation that is able to compete and be productive at the global level.


Abdullah, A. H., Mokhtar, M., Abd Halim, N. D., Ali, D. F., Mohd Tahir, L., Abdul Kohar, U. H. (2017). Mathematics Teachers’ Level of Knowledge and Practice on the Implementation of Higher-Order Thinking Skills (HOTS). Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 13(1), 3-17.
Abdullah, A. H. (2017). Mathematics Teachers’ Level of Knowledge and Practice on the Implementation of Higher-Order Thinking Skills (HOTS). EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 13, 3–17.
Abdul Halim, T. & Siti Muhibah, H. N. (2015). Prinsip Pembelajaran Aktif dalam Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Pendidikan Islam. Jurnal Pendidikan Fakulti Pendidikan, 3(2), 28-42.
Abdullah, N., & Darusalam, G. (2018). Kesediaan Guru Melaksanakan Kemahiran Berfikir Aras Tinggi Dalam Pengajaran. JuKu: Jurnal Kurikulum & Pengajaran Asia Pasifik, 6(3), 22-31.
Abdul Aziz @ Ahmad, Azian & Ismail, Fauziah & Mala Ibrahim, Noor & Abdul Samat, Norhanim. (2017). Investigating the Implementation of Higher Order Thinking Skills in Malaysian Classrooms: Insights from L2 Teaching Practices. Sains Humanika, 9. 10.11113/sh.v9n4-2.1361.
Abd. Rahman, Azilah (2010) Hubungan antara personaliti dan gaya pengajaran guru dengan pencapaian matematik PMR satu kajian di sekolah menengah daerah Kota Tinggi. Masters thesis, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Faculty of Education.
Ahmad, Anuar & Jinggan, Nelson. (2015). Pengaruh Kompetensi Kemahiran Guru Dalam Pengajaran Terhadap Pencapaian Akademik Pelajar Dalam Mata Pelajaran Sejarah. Juku: Jurnal Kurikulum & Pengajaran Asia Pasifik.
Akbari, Ramin & Mirhassani, A. & Bahri, Hossein. (2005). The relationship between teaching style and personality type of Iranian EFL teachers. Iranian Journal of Applied Lingusitics. 8. 1-22.
Aldajah, S., Haik, Y., & Moustafa, K. (2014). Compatibility of Teaching Styles With Learning Styles: A Case Study. European Journal of Educational Sciences, 50-58.
Alhassora, N. S. A., Abu, M. S., & Abdullah, A. H. (2017). Inculcating Higher-Order Thinking Skills In Mathematics: Why Is It So Hard? Man in India, 97 (13), 51-62.
Ally, M. (2005). Using learning theories to design instruction for mobile learning devices. In Attewell, J. and Savill-Smith, C., editors, Mobile learning anytime everywhere, pages 5_8. Learning and Skill Development Agency, London.
Aliakbari, M., & Soltani, N. (2009). Variation of learning styles among Iranian EFL learners: Effects of culture, language background and gender. In Proceedings of the 16th Conference of Pan-Pacific Association of Applied Linguistics (pp. 200-209).
Althauser, K. and Harter, C. (2016). Math and economics: Implementing authentic instruction in grades k-5. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 4(4):111-122.
Amira, R., & Jelas, Z. M. (2010). Teaching and Learning Styles in Higher Education Institutions: Do They Match? Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 7, 680–684.
Arase, Amsah, Nurzatulshima Kamarudin, & Aminuddin Hassan, The Development of Students’ Capabilities In Higher Order Thinking Skill (HOTS) Through Science Education, Jurnal Pemikir Pendidikan. 7: 2016.
Anderson L W and Krathwohl D R. (2001). A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, And assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (New York: Addison Wesley Longman).
Anderson, L., Krathwohl, D., Airasian, P. et al (2001), A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, New York: Pearson, Allyn & Bacon.
Andriani, A & Dewi, I & Sagala, P. (2019). Development of blended learning media using the mentimeter application to improve mathematics creative thinking skills. Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 1188. 012112. 10.1088/1742-6596/1188/1/012112.
Aydin, S., Aydemir, N., Boz, Y., Cetin-Dindar, A. and Bektas, O, The Contribution of Constructivist Instruction Accompanied by Concept Mapping in Enhancing Pre-service Chemistry Teachers’ Conceptual Understanding of Chemistry in the Laboratory Course. "Journal of Science Education and Technology", 18, (2009), p.518-534.
Azilah Abd. Rahman. (2010). Hubungan antara personaliti dan gaya pengajaran guru dengan pencapaian Matematik PMR: Satu kajian di Sekolah Menengah daerah Kota Tinggi. Masters thesis, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Faculty of Education.
Aziz, A., & Andin, C. (2018). Penggunaan Strategi Pembelajaran Koperatif untuk Meningkatkan Tahap Kemahiran Berfikir Aras Tinggi Pelajar (The Use of Cooperative Learning Strategies to Improve Students’ Higher Order Thinking Skills). Jurnal Pendidikan Malaysia | Malaysian Journal of Education, 43(1), 1-9.
Azmi, M. N., & Nurzatulshima. (2017). Penerapan Kemahiran Berfikir Aras Tinggi (KBAT): Kesdiaan Guru dalam Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Reka Bentuk dan teknologi (RBT) di Sekolah Rendah. International Research Journal of Education and Sciences (IRJES), Vol.1 Special Issue 1 (Malay).
Azian, Abd & Ismail, Fauziah & Ibrahim, Noor Mala & Abdul Samat, Norhanim. (2017). Investigating the Implementation of Higher Order Thinking Skills in Malaysian Classrooms: Insights from L2 Teaching Practices. Sains Humanika. 9. 10.11113/sh. v9n4-2.1361.
Baharin, N., Kamarudin, N., & Manaf, U. K. A. (2018). Integrating STEM Education Approach in Enhancing Higher Order Thinking Skills. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(7), 810–822.
Bakar, S, A, Ayub, A. F. M, Gopal, K., & Salim, N.R. (2019) The Influence of Students' Beliefs on Mathematical Problem Solving towards Mathematics Achievement among Malaysian Matriculation Students. Universal Journal of Educational Research. 7(10), 2243-2247.
Balakrishnan, M., Nadarajah, G.M., Rahim, N.A., & Wong, A. (2016) Enhancement of Higher Order Thinking Skills among Teacher Trainers by Fun Game Learning Approach, International Journal of Educational and Pedagogical Sciences,10(12) 3954-3958.
Baleghizadeh. S. & Shakouri, M. (2014): The Effect of Gender and Teaching Experience on Iranian ESP Instructors’ Teaching Styles. Journal of Education and Human Development. 3(2): 979-989.
Barrett, K. R. (2004). A comparison of online teaching styles in Florida Community College (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation). Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida. Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database (UMI No: 3160545).
Breckler J, Teoh CS & Role K. (2011). Academic performance and learning style self-predictions by second language students in an introductory biology course. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 11(4):26–43.
Brendefur, J. L., Thiede, K., Strother, S., Bunning, K., & Peck, D. (2013). Developing Mathematical Thinking: Changing Teachers’ Knowledge and Instruction. Journal of Curriculum and Teaching, 2(2).
Brew, Christine. (2002). Kolb’s Learning Style Instrument: Sensitive to Gender. Educational and Psychological Measurement - EDUC PSYCHOL MEAS. 62. 373-390.
Brookhart, S., 2010. How to Assess Higher - Order Thinking Skills in Your Classroom. Alexandra, VA: ASCD.
Bloom, B.S., & Krathwohl, D. R. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals by A Committee of College and University Examiners. Handbook I: Cognitive Domain. NY: Longmans, Green.
Boaler, J., & Staples, M. (2008). Creating mathematical futures through an equitable teaching approach: The case of rail side school. Teachers collage record, 110(3), 608-645.
Caroline L. D. dan Abdul Said Ambotang. (2014). Profesionalisme Guru Novis dalam Pengurusan Pengetahuan, Kesediaan Mengajar dan Kemahiran Berfikir Aras Tinggi (KBAT) Terhadap Pelaksanaan Pengajaran. Seminar Kebangsaan Integriti Keluarga 2014. 11 December, Universiti Malaysia Sabah.
Canto-Herrera, P. & Salazar-Carballo, H. (2010). Teaching Beliefs and Teaching Styles of Mathematics Teachers and their Relationship with Academic Achievement. Paper presented in AERA meeting.
Chapman, J. K, Hughes, P., & Williamson, B. (2001). Teachers' perceptions of classroom competencies over a decade of change. Asia Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 29 (2), 171-184.
Cooper H. (2001). The Battle Over Homework: Common Ground for Administrators, Teachers, and Parents, 2nd Edn. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage; Publications.
Davis-Langston. C. (2012). Exploring relationships among teaching styles, teachers’ perception of their self efficacy and students’ mathematiccs achievement. Unpublish thesis. Liberty University.
Erduran S. and Msimanga A., (2014), Science Curriculum Reform In South Africa: Lessons For Professional Development From Research On Argumentation In Science Education. Education as Change. 18(1). 33–46.
Fischer, B., & Fischer, L. (1979). Styles In Teaching And Learning. Educational Leadership, 36, 245-254.
Ganapathy, M., Singh, M. K. M., Kaur, S., & Kit, L. W. (2017). Promoting Higher Order Thinking Skills via Teaching Practices. 3L: Language, Linguistics, Literature, 23(1).
Galton M, Hargreaves L, Pell T (2009). Group work and whole-class teaching with 11 to14 year olds compared. Cambridge J. Educ. 39(1):119-140.
Glanville, J., Eyers, J., Jones, A. M., Shemilt, I., Wang, G., Johansen, M., … Rothstein, H. (2017). Quasi-Experimental Study Designs Series—Paper 8: Identifying Quasi-Experimental Studies To Inform Systematic Reviews. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 89, 67–76.
Grasha, A. F. (1996). Teaching with Style: A Practical Guide to Enhancing Learning by Understanding Teaching and Learning Styles. Pittsburgh, PA: Alliance Publishers.
Grasha, A.F., (2002). Teaching With Style: A Practical Guide to Enhancing Learning by Understanding Teaching and Learning Styles. Alliance Publisher, USA.
Gulistan Ahmed, Mohammed Artosh (2016). Development of a higher order thinking teaching model for basic education students in Science / Gulistan Ahmed Mohammed Artosh. PhD thesis, University of Malaya.
Hamzeh, Mohammad. (2014). Teaching Strategies Used by Mathematics Teachers in the Jordan Public Schools and Their Relationship with Some Variables. American Journal of Educational Research. 2. 331-340. 10.12691/education-2-6-1.
Heong, Y. M., Othman, W. B., Yunos, J. Bin, Kiong, T. T., Hassan, R. Bin, Mohaffyza, M., & Mohamad, B. (2011). The Level of Marzano Higher Order Thinking Skills among Technical Education Students. International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, 1(2), 121–125.
Hosseini Fatemi, A., & Raufi, R. (2014). Burnout and teaching style among Iranian English language educators in public schools and private institutes: a case-comparison study. International Journal of Research Studies in Language Learning, 1, 1-7.
Ibrahim, N. N., Ayub, A. F. M., Yunus, A. S. M., & Mahmud, R. (2019). Effects of Higher Order Thinking Module Approach on Pupils’ Performance at Primary Rural School. Malaysian Journal of Mathematical Sciences, 13(2), 211-229.
Jacob, R., Hill, H., & Corey, D. (2017). The Impact of a Professional Development Program on Teachers’ Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching, Instruction, and Student Achievement. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 10(2), 379–407.
Jarvis, P. (2004). Adult Education And Lifelong Learning: Theory And Practice. London: Routledge Falmer.
Kamarudin, Nurzatulshima & Hamza, Haula & Jiun, Lee. (2016). Malaysia Journal of Higher Order Thinking Skills in Education (MJHOTS)-Promoting Higher Order Thinking Skills in Science Education. Edition: 2, Publisher: Faculty of Education, University Teknologi Malaysia, ISBN: ISSN:2462-2397
Kassim, Nooriza & Zakaria, Effandi. (2015). Integrasi kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran matematik: Analisis keperluan guru. Prosiding Seminar Education Graduate Regional Conference, 60-67.
Kassim, N., & Zakaria, E. (2015). Integrasi Kemahiran Berfikir Aras Tinggi Dalam Pengajaran Dan Pembelajaran Matematik: Analisis Keperluan Guru. Jurnal Pendidikan Matematik, 3(1), 1–12.
Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia. (2013). Pentaksiran Kemahiran Berfikir Aras Tinggi (Assessing Hots). Melaka: Surya Sdn. Bhd.
Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia. (2013). Pelan Pembanguan Pendidikan Malaysia 2013-2025. Putrajaya, Malaysia: Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia.
Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia, Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum, (2014). Kemahiran Berfikir Aras Tinggi Aplikasi di Sekolah.
Dicapai dari: https://www.moe.gov.my/images/WargaKPM/Guru/kbat/EBOOK.
Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia, Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum, (2014). Kurikulum Standard Sekolah Rendah.Dokumen Standard Kurikulum dan Pentaksiran. Matematik Tahun Lima. Dicapai dari: http://bpk.moe.gov.my/index.php/terbitan-bpk/kurikulum-sekolah-rendah/category/392-dskp-tahun-5
Kamal Lamichhane (2017) Teaching students with visual impairments in an inclusive educational setting: a case from Nepal, International Journal of Inclusive Education, 21:1, 1-13.
Kaplan, E. J., & Kies, D. A. (1995). Teaching styles and learning styles: Which came first? Journal of Instructional Psychology, 22(1), 29-33.
Khalil, M., Farooq, R. A., Çakiroglu, E., Khalil, U., & Khan, D. M. (2018). The development of mathematical achievement in analytic geometry of grade-12 students through GeoGebra activities. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 14(4), 1453–1463.
Kılıç, F., & Dilbaz, G. (2013). The Investigation of Working in High School Science Teachers’ Teaching Styles in terms of Various Variables, The Journal of Academic Social Science Studies, 6(6), 715-738.
Krathwohl. D.R (2002). A revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy: An overview. Theory Into Practice, 41, 212-218.
Lai, E. R. (2011). Metacognition: A Literature review research report. Research Reports. New York, NY: Pearson. Retrieved from http://www.datec.org.uk/CHAT/chatmeta1.htm
Lee, J.-S. (2014). The Relationship Between Student Engagement and Academic Performance: Is It a Myth or Reality? The Journal of Educational Research, 107(3), 177-185.
Lee, J.G., (2004). An Investigationand Analysis of the Teaching Styles Of Faculty Members in Mıdwestern Christian Collegesand Universities. An Abstract of A Dissertation Presented to the Department of Educational Leadership College of Education Faculty of the Graduate at theUniversity of Kansas State for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy: Manhattan, Kansas.
Litiloly S. R, Sohilait E, & Sidik M. K (2018). Analysis on Teaching Style of Mathematics Teachers of Masohi City. Proceeding Book The 3rd International Seminar on Education.
Lu, Hsin-Ke & Lin, peng-Chun & Liu, Shang-Chia. (2013). Toward an Education Behavioral Intention Model for e-Learning Systems: an Extension of UTAUT. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology. 47. 1200.
Lloyd, D.G., (2002). Teaching Styles and Faculty Attitudes Towards Computer Technology in Teaching And Learning at a College in Ontario. PhD Dissertation. Canada: University of Toronto.
Mainali, B. P. (2012). Higher Order Thinking in Education. Academic Voices: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 2(1), 5–10.
Marzano, R., & Kendall, J. (2007). The new taxonomy of educational objectives (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Marzano, R.J. & Kendall, J. S. (2007). The new taxonomy of educational. (2nd ed.) Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Masrom, N. W., Hashim, M., Hashim, N., & Behak, F. P. (2018). Kedudukan Taksonomi Bloom Menurut Perspektif Islam. Journal of Quran Sunnah Education & Special Needs, 2(1), 18-26.
Mat Nor @ Ahmad Nor, Mohamad Nurul Azmi and Kamarudin, Nurzatulshima and Abdul Manaf, Umi Kalthom and Mohd Puad, Mohd Hazwan. (2017). Penerapan Kemahiran Berfikir Aras Tinggi (KBAT) Dalam Kurikulum Reka Bentuk Dan Teknologi (RBT) sekolah rendah. International Journal of Education and Training, 3 (2). pp. 1-7.
Mazeni, Ismail and Hasmadi, Hassan (2017) Gaya pengajaran dalam kalangan guru Tabika Kemas di Kelantan. Jurnal Pendidikan Awal Kanak-Kanak Kebangsaan, 6 (December), 1 - 15.
Meidasari, V. E., Suseno, I., & Kosasih, A. (2014). Kualitas Kognitif Dalam Integrasi Taksonomi Bloom dan Taksonomi Solo. Prosiding SNaPP: Sosial, Ekonomi, Dan Humaniora, 4(1), 351–358.
Mike, G. &. (2013). Classroom Practice Still Blooming After Almost 60 Years: News
Ministry of Education. (2013). Malaysia Education Blueprint 2013-2025 (Preschoool to Post-Secondary Education, Putrajaya, Malaysia: Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia.
Mohamad Saad, Norhana & Baharuddin, Juliana & Ismail, Siti Noor (2017). Hubungan Antara Tahap Kompetensi Fungsional Guru Dengan Pencapaian Akademik Pelajar Di Sekolah Menengah Di Negeri Kelantan. Proceedings of the ICECRS, 1 (1). pp. 199-208.
Mohd Nazri Hassan, Ramlee Mustapha, Nik Azimah Nik Yusuff, R. M. (2017). Sains Humanika H Mata Pembangunan Modul Kemahiran Berfikir Aras Tinggi di dalam Humanika. Sains Humanika, 1–5(9), 119–125.
Mohd Syaubari Othman & Ahmad Yunus Kassim. 2017. Pelaksanaan Amalan Pengajaran Guru Pendidikan Islam Sekolah Menerusi Kaedah Penyoalan Berdasarkan Kemahiran Berfikir Aras Tinggi (KBAT). Tinta Artikulasi Membina Ummah 3(1): 42 - 53, e - ISSN: 2289-960X.
Mohsen Safarie, Hassan Tarlani-aliabadi, (2014). Who Practices What? A Correlational Study of Personality Type and Teaching Reflection, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 98, Pages 1606-1610.
Muhammad Faez, Wan Muna & Melur, (2018). The Application of Higher Order Thinking Skills in Teaching Essay for UPSR by Bahasa Melayu Teacher: A Case Study. Sains Humanika (Volume 10, No. 3-2, Special Issue 1, Pages 27 to 37).
Moidunny, K. (2012). Artikel 5: Taksonomi Bloom: Peeubahan yang diperlukan? Sri laying: Institut Aminuddin Baki, 17 september 2012.
Dicapai dari: http://kamaruzamanmoidunny.blogspot.com/2012/09/ taksonomi-bloom-perubahan-yang.html
Mullis, I. V. S., Martin, M. O., Foy, P. & Arora, A. (2012). TIMSS 2011 International results in mathematics. Chestnut Hill, MA: TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Lynch School of Education, Boston College. Retrieved 2nd January 2013, from http://timssandpirls.bc.edu/timss2011/downloads/T11_IR_Mathematics_FullBook.pdf.
Naik B, (2013). Influence of culture on learning styles of business students. International Journal of Education Research, 8(1):129–139.
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics. Reston, VA: NCTM,1989.
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). (2017). Catalyzing Change in High School Mathematics. Retrieved from Reston, VA: https ://www.nctm.org/uploaded Files/Standards_and Positions/Catalyzing Chang ePublicReview.pdf.
Narayanan, Sowmya & Adithan, M. (2015). Analysis Of Question Papers In Engineering Courses With Respect To Hots (Higher Order Thinking Skills). American Journal of Engineering Education (AJEE). 6. 1. 10.19030/ajee. v6i1.9247.
Nguyen, T. M. T., Nguyen, H. D., Nguyen, L. T. T., & Doan, N. T. (2016). An Investigation Into How QH2012. F1 Students Use Higher-Order Thinking Skills In English Linguistics Assessments At VNU-ULIS. VNU Journal of Foreign Studies, 32(3), 57-66.
Nidzam, C., Ahmad, C., Yahaya, A., Faizal, M., Abdullah, N. L., Nur, A. &, & Baharudin, F. (2018). The Effect of Hots-Pbl Module on High Order Thinking Skills and Motivation Among Form Two Students. Sci.Int.(Lahore), 30(5), 753–756.
Nkhoma, Stanford & Kalinda, Thomson & Kuntashula, Elias. (2017). Adoption and Impact of Conservation Agriculture on Smallholder Farmers’ Crop Productivity and Income in Luapula Province, Zambia. Journal of Agricultural Science. 9. 168.
Noor Erma Binti Abu & Leong Kwan Eu. (2014). Hubungan Antara Sikap, Minat, Pengajaran Guru Dan Pengaruh Rakan Sebaya Terhadap Pencapaian Matematik Tambahan Tingkatan 4. JuKu: Jurnal Kurikulum & Pengajaran Asia Pasifik (Januari 2014, Bil. 2 Isu 1).
Norliza, A.R., Fauziah, A. & Parilah, M.S. (2007). Perceived and Preferred Teaching Styles (Methods) of English for Specific Purposes (ESP) Students. Jurnal e-Bangi, 2(2). 17.
Nor Hasmaliza Hasan., & Zamri Mahamod. (2016). Persepsi guru Bahasa Melayu sekolah menengah terhadap kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi. Malay Language Education Journal, 6(2), 2180–4842.
Nooriza Kassim & Effandi Zakaria. (2015). Integrasi kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran matematik: Analisis keperluan guru. Prosiding Seminar Education Graduate Regional Conference, 60-67.
Nor Jannah Hassan, Nooriza Kassim, Safani Bari, Effandi Zakaria, & Norshidah Mohamad. (2015). Infusi Kemahiran Berfikir Aras Tinggi (KBAT) dalam Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Matematik Murid Bermasalah Penglihatan. In Seminar Internasional Pendidikan Khas Pasca Siswazah (pp. 1–13).
Okitowamba, O., Julie, C., & Mbekwa, M. (2018). The effects of examination-driven teaching on mathematics achievement in Grade 10 school-based high-stakes examinations. Pythagoras, 39(1), a377.
Orhun N. (2007). An investigation into the mathematics achievement and attitude towards mathematics with respect to learning style according to gender. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 38(3):321–333.
Owi, W. P., A., A., A., M., , and H., A. K. (2017). Eectiveness of higher order thinking skills (hots) based i-think map concept towards primary students. In AIP Conference Proceedings, volume 1847, page 030009.
Ozturk, Nesrin. (2017). Assessing Metacognition: Theory and Practices. International Journal of Assessment Tools in Education. 4. 134-134.
Pascarella ET, Wang JS, Trolian TL, Blaich C (2013). How the instructional and learning environments of liberal arts colleges enhance cognitive development. Higher Educ. 66:569-583.
Pinger, P., Rakoczy, K., Besser, M., & Klieme, E. (2016). Implementation of formative assessment – effects of quality of programme delivery on students’ mathematics achievement and interest. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 25(2), 160–182.
Pink, D. H. (2011). Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us: Penguin.
Preece, A. S. and Adila, J. 2014). Philosophical Inquiry In The Malaysian Educational System–Reality Or Fantasy? Analytic Teaching And Philosophical Praxis, 35 (1), 26 -38.
Pying, H. S., & Rashid, A. M. (2013). Relationship Between Teachers Teaching Styles And Students Interest Towards Integrated Living Skills Subjects In Schools. Journal of International Education Research (JIER), 10(1), 7-14.
Ramasamy, R., & Puteh, M. (2019). The Effectiveness of Bar Model to Enhance HOTs in Mathematics for Year 4 Pupils. International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development, 8(2), 200–204.
Ramos, J. L. S., Dolipas, B. B., & Villamore, B. B. (2013). Higher Order Thinking Skills and Academic Performance in Physics of College Students: A Regression Analysis. International Journal of innovative Interdisciplinary Research, 4, 48-60.
Rahimi, M., & Asadollahi, F. (2012). Teaching Styles of Iranian EFL Teachers: Do Gender, Age, and Experience Make a Difference? International Journal of English Linguistics, 2, 157.
Richardson, V. (1997). Constructivist teaching and teacher education: theory and practice, in: V. Richardson (Ed.), Constructivist Teacher Education: building new understandings (pp. 3–14). London, Falmer.
Robyn Collins. 2014. Skills for the 21st Century: teaching higher-order thinking. Curriculum & Leardership Journal 12(14), hlm. 1-8.
Rotumoi, J & Too, K. (2012) Factors influencing the choice of approaches used by preschool
teachers in Baringo county. International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development. 1( 2).
Royo, Muhamad Abdillah and Mahmood, Haleefa (2011) Faktor-faktor kelemahan yang mempengaruhi pencapaian cemerlang dalam mata pelajaran reka cipta. Journal of Educational Psychology and Counseling, 2 (6). pp. 145-174. ISSN 2231-735X
Ryan, S. (2016). Teacher Quality and Student Achievement: A Multilevel Analysis of Teacher Credentialization and Student Test Scores in California High Schools. McGill Sociological Review, 5, 1-18.
Sari, M. H., & Aksoy, N. C. (2016). The Relationship Between Mathematics Teaching Anxiety And Teaching Style Of Primary School Teachers. Turkish Studies, 11(3), 1953-1968.
Schulz, H., & FitzPatrick, B. (2016). Teachers’ understandings of critical and higher order thinking and what this means for their teaching and assessments. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 62(1), 61–86.
Seman, S. C., Yusoff, W. M. W., & Embong, R. (2017). Teachers Challenges in Teaching and Learning for Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) in Primary School. International Journal of Asian Social Science, 7(7), 534–545.
Senturki. F. & Ikikardes, N.Y. (2011). The effects of learning and teaching styles on the 7th grade students’ mathematical success. Electronic journal of science and mathematics education. vol 5 (1), pp 225-276.
Shaari, A. S., Yusoff, N. M., Ghazali, I. M., Osman, R. H., & Dzahir, N. F. M. (2014). The Relationship between Lecturers’ Teaching Style and Students’ Academic Engagement. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 118, 10–20.
Shukla, Divya; Dungsungnoen, Aj Pattaradanai. 2016.Student’s Perceived Level and Teachers’ Teaching Strategies of Higher Order Thinking Skills; A Study on Higher Educational Institutions in Thailand, International Journal of education and practice. Journal of Education and Practice, v7 n12 p211-219.
Shulman, L. S. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: foundations of a new reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57 (1), p. 1-22.
Sosu Edmund. (2016). Analysis of preferred teaching styles used by History tutors. International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 7. 1694-2620.
Sulaiman, T., Ayub, A. F. M., & Sulaiman, S. (2015). Curriculum Change in English Language Curriculum Advocates Higher Order Thinking Skills and Standards-Based Assessments in Malaysian Primary Schools. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences.
Syafii, W., & Yasin, R. M. (2013). Problem Solving Skills and Learning Achievements through Problem-Based Module in teaching and learning Biology in High School. Asian Social Science, 9(12).
Syrmpas Y., Digelidis N. (2014). Physical education student teachers’ experiences with and perceptions of teaching styles. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 14, 52-59.
Tajularipin, S., Vickneswary, M., Diwiyah, M., Raidah, H., & Suzieleez, S. A. R. (2017). Implementation of Higher Order Thinking Skills in teaching of Science: A case study in Malaysia. International Research Journal of Education and Sciences (IRJES), 1(1).
Tanvi, Paras & Faldu, Tanvi & Sameer, Sudhakar & Pingle, Sameer. (2015). Personality Traits And Teaching Style Of Management Teachers: An Empirical Study. The Journal Contemporary Management Research. 9. 16-38.
Tanujaya, B., Mumu, J., & Margono, G. (2017). The Relationship between Higher Order Thinking Skills and Academic Performance of Student in Mathematics Instruction. International Education Studies, 10(11), 78.
Yin Peen, T., & Yusof Arshad, M. (2014). Teacher and Student Questions: A Case Study in Malaysian Secondary School Problem-Based Learning. Asian Social Science, 10(4).
Wilkinson, L. C. (2018). Teaching The Language Of Mathematics: What The Research Tells Us Teachers Need To Know And Do. The Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 51, 167–174.
Widana, I. W. (2017). Higher Order Thinking Skills Assessment (HOTS), International Journal Indonesia Student Assesment And Evaluation. JISAE. Volume 3 Number 1 February 2017. Ms. 33.
Wolf SJ, Fraser BJ (2008). Learning environment, attitudes and achievement among middle-school science students using inquiry-based laboratory activities. Res. Sci. Educ. 38:321-341.
Yee, M.H., Yunos, J. M., Othman, W., Hassan, R., Kiong, T. T., & Mohamad, M. M. (2012). The Needs Analysis of Learning Higher Order Thinking Skills for Generating Ideas. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 59, 197–203.
Yee, M. H., Yunos, J. M., Othman, W., Hassan, R., Tee, T. K., & Mohamad, M. M. (2015). Disparity of Learning Styles and Higher Order Thinking Skills among Technical Students. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 204, 143–152.
Yee, M. H. (2015). Kesan Manual Pengintegrasian Strategi Pembelajaran dan Kemahiran Berfikir Aras Tinggi Terhadap Penjanaan Idea Dalam Kalangan Pelajar Teknikal [Manual of Integration of Learning Strategies and Higher Level Thinking Skills for Creating Ideas Among Technical Students]. Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia: Tesis Ph.D.
Yen, T.S, Halili S.H. (2015) Effective Teaching Of Higher-Order Thinking (Hot) In Education, The Online Journal of Distance Education and e-Learning,3(2) 41-47.
Yusoff, W. M. W., & Seman, S. C. (2018). Teachers’ Knowledge of Higher Order Thinking and Questioning Skills: A Case Study at a Primary School in Terengganu, Malaysia. International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development, 7(2), 45–63.
Zarina Binti Abdul Rashid. (2016). Tahap Kesediaan Guru Dalam Aspek Pengetahuan Dan Keperluan Latihan Berfokuskan Aplikasi KBAT. Ijazah Sarjana Pendidikan Teknikal (Reka bentuk Instruksional dan Teknologi). Fakulti Pendidikan Teknikal dan Vokasional Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia.
Zahorik, J. A. (1990). Stability and Flexibility in Teaching. Teacher and Teaching Education, 6 (1):69-80.
How to Cite
MAHMAD, Mohd Faisal et al. HIGHER ORDER THINKING SKILLS AND TEACHING STYLE IN MATHEMATICS PRIMARY SCHOOL: A REVIEW. International Journal of Education and Pedagogy, [S.l.], v. 3, n. 1, p. 1-21, mar. 2021. ISSN 2682-8464. Available at: <https://myjms.mohe.gov.my/index.php/ijeap/article/view/12603>. Date accessed: 10 june 2023.