Developing the Potential of Women Foodpreneur by Using the Skill Will Matrix: A Case Study of Dapur Mawar Program

  • Nurul Hidayana Mohd Noor
  • Noralina Omar


Small and medium-scale entrepreneurs mainly consist of women. Women's small businesses in developing communities can drive the economy for generations. To succeed in the business world, women entrepreneurs need to have high skills and knowledge. Entrepreneurship training and skills are essential, especially for potential entrepreneurs who want to develop and expand a business. Thus, it is essential to identify and evaluate existing and foreseeable skills and abilities. Entrepreneurial skills can be learned, formed, and mastered by an individual through the entrepreneurial education process or experience. The Dapur Mawar project aims to provide training and education for women foodprenuers. Before the training module's implementation, the trainers employed a skill-will matrix to examine the willingness and skills of trainees. This study uses a semi-structured interview method. Twenty-three women foodprenuers have been selected as key informants using purposive sampling. Deductive content analysis for analyzing qualitative data was employed to quantify the frequency of keywords. Pre-existing quadrants are applied to the data through a deductive approach. The findings revealed that critical informants could be categorized into two categories: 1) an entrepreneur with high skill and high motivation and 2) an entrepreneur with low skill and high motivation. The result of the analysis is used to prepare the Dapur Mawar program. The implications of the study and future research suggestions are also justified.  


Abebe, A., & Kegne, M. (2023). The role of microfinance institutions on women’s entrepreneurship development. Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 12(1), 1-24.
Al Boinin, H. (2023). Women’s entrepreneurship in the GCC: A literature analysis from a socio-cultural perspective. Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy.
Alene, E. T. (2020). Determinants that influence the performance of women entrepreneurs in micro and small enterprises in Ethiopia. Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 9, 1–20.
Bae, K. S., & Roh, Y. S. (2020). Training needs analysis of Korean nurses' neurological assessment competency. Nursing & Health Sciences, 22(1), 99–107.
Baral, R., Dey, C., Manavazhagan, S., & Kamalini, S. (2023). Women entrepreneurs in India: A systematic literature review. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 15(1), 94-121.
Barney, J. B. (1991). The resource-based view of strategy: Origins, implications, and prospects. Editor of Special Theory Forum in Journal of Management. 17, 97–211.
Blanchard, P. N., & Thacker, J. W. (2023). Effective training: Systems, strategies, and practices. SAGE Publications.
Brixiová, Z., Kangoye, T., & Said, M. (2020). Training, human capital, and gender gaps in entrepreneurial performance. Economic Modelling, 85, 367-380.
Bu, J., & Cuervo‐Cazurra, A. (2020). Informality costs: Informal entrepreneurship and innovation in emerging economies. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 14(3), 329-368.
Byukusenge, E., Munene, J. C., & Orobia, L. A. (2021). Managerial competencies and business performance: Innovation as a mediator in Rwandan SMEs. International Journal of Law and Management, 63(5), 445-463.
Chaker, H., & Zouaoui, S. (2023). Meeting the challenge of entrepreneurship with social media: The case of Tunisian women entrepreneurs. Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Emerging Economies, 9(1), 33-61.
Chell, E., & Athayde, R. (2017). Planning for uncertainty: Soft skills, hard skills, and innovation. In Reflective Learning in Management, Development and Education (pp. 33–46). Routledge.
Cho, Y., Li, J., & Chaudhuri, S. (2020). Women entrepreneurs in Asia: Eight country studies. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 22(2), 115-123.
Department of Statistics of Malaysia (2020). Statistics on Women Empowerment in Selected Domains, Malaysia, 2020. Retrieved from
Digan, S. P., Sahi, G. K., Mantok, S., & Patel, P. C. (2019). Women's perceived empowerment in entrepreneurial efforts: The role of bricolage and psychological capital. Journal of Small Business Management, 57(1), 206-229.
Eby, L. T., Allen, T. D., Conley, K. M., Williamson, R. L., Henderson, T. G., & Mancini, V. S. (2019). Mindfulness-based training interventions for employees: A qualitative review of the literature. Human Resource Management Review, 29(2), 156–178.
Freixanet, J., Braojos, J., Rialp-Criado, A., & Rialp-Criado, J. (2021). Does international entrepreneurial orientation foster innovation performance? The mediating role of social media and open innovation. The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 22(1), 33-44.
Galvão, A., Marques, C., & Ferreira, J. J. (2020). The role of entrepreneurship education and training programs in advancing entrepreneurial skills and new ventures. European Journal of Training and Development, 44(6/7), 595-614.
Ghouse, S. M., Durrah, O., & McElwee, G. (2021). Rural women entrepreneurs in Oman: Problems and opportunities. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 27(7), 1674-1695.
Gielnik, M. M., Frese, M., Bischoff, K. M., Muhangi, G., & Omoo, F. (2019). Positive impact of entrepreneurship training on entrepreneurial behavior in a vocational training setting. In Entrepreneurship in Africa (pp. 96-114). Routledge.
Hameed, I., & Irfan, Z. (2019). Entrepreneurship education: A review of challenges, characteristics, and opportunities. Entrepreneurship Education, 2, 135–148.
Kelly, G., & McAdam, M. (2023). Women entrepreneurs negotiating identities in liminal digital spaces. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 47(5), 1942-1970.
Kerrin, M., Mamabolo, M. A., & Kele, T. (2017). Entrepreneurship management skills requirements in an emerging economy: A South African outlook. The Southern African Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business Management, 9(1), 1-10.
Lounsbury, M., Cornelissen, J., Granqvist, N., & Grodal, S. (2021). Culture, innovation, and entrepreneurship. In Culture, Innovation and Entrepreneurship (pp. 1–12). Routledge.
López-Núñez, M. I., Rubio-Valdehita, S., Aparicio-García, M. E., & Díaz-Ramiro, E. M. (2020). Are entrepreneurs born or made? The influence of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 154, 109699.
Lyu, W., & Liu, J. (2021). Soft skills, hard skills: What matters most? Evidence from job postings. Applied Energy, 300, 117307.
McClenlland, D.C. (1961). The Achieving Society. Van Nostrand: Princeton, NJ, USA.
Milana, C., & Ashta, A. (2020). Microfinance and financial inclusion: Challenges and opportunities. Strategic Change, 29(3), 257-266.
Mohd Noor, N. H., Yaacob, M. A., & Omar, N. (2023). Do knowledge and personality traits influence women entrepreneurs’ e-commerce venture? Testing on the multiple mediation model. Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies.
Mukesh, H. V., Pillai, K. R., & Mamman, J. (2020). Action-embedded pedagogy in entrepreneurship education: An experimental enquiry. Studies in Higher Education, 45(8), 1679-1693.
Orser, B., Riding, A., & Li, Y. (2019). Technology adoption and gender-inclusive entrepreneurship education and training. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 11(3), 273–298. =
Rahman, M. M., Dana, L. P., Moral, I. H., Anjum, N., & Rahaman, M. S. (2023). Challenges of rural women entrepreneurs in Bangladesh to survive their family entrepreneurship: A narrative inquiry through storytelling. Journal of Family Business Management, 13(3), 645-664.
Ratten, V., & Usmanij, P. (2021). Entrepreneurship education: Time for a change in research direction? The International Journal of Management Education, 19(1), 100367. =
Rehman, S. U., Elrehail, H., Nair, K., Bhatti, A., & Taamneh, A. M. (2023). MCS package and entrepreneurial competency influence on business performance: The moderating role of business strategy. European Journal of Management and Business Economics, 32(1), 1-23. =
Sergi, B. S., Popkova, E. G., Bogoviz, A. V., & Ragulina, J. V. (2019). Entrepreneurship and economic growth: the experience of developed and developing countries. In Entrepreneurship and Development in the 21st Century (pp. 3-32). Emerald Publishing Limited.
Shukla, A., Kushwah, P., Jain, E., & Sharma, S. K. (2021). Role of ICT in emancipation of digital entrepreneurship among new generation women. Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, 15(1), 137–154.
Thomassen, M. L., Williams Middleton, K., Ramsgaard, M. B., Neergaard, H., & Warren, L. (2020). Conceptualizing context in entrepreneurship education: A literature review. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 26(5), 863-886.
Wadhwani, R. D., Kirsch, D., Welter, F., Gartner, W. B., & Jones, G. G. (2020). Context, time, and change: Historical approaches to entrepreneurship research. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 14(1), 3-19.
How to Cite
MOHD NOOR, Nurul Hidayana; OMAR, Noralina. Developing the Potential of Women Foodpreneur by Using the Skill Will Matrix: A Case Study of Dapur Mawar Program. International Journal of Business and Technology Management, [S.l.], v. 6, n. 2, p. 37-49, june 2024. ISSN 2682-7646. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 22 july 2024.
English Section