Assessing the RIASEC Model’s Impact on Critical Thinking in Industry 4.0

  • Ani Liza Abd Rahman
  • Mohd Isa Abd Rahim
  • Nor Jannah Ismail


The advent of Industrial Revolution 4.0 (IR 4.0) necessitates not only technologies advancements in manufacturing but also the development of essential human competencies, such as critical thinking, which beyond the capabilities of automated systems. This study draws the inspiration from the Holland theory to examine the influence of RIASEC model on critical thinking competency within the context of IR 4.0. Survey data were gathered from 98 bachelor students enrolled in work-based learning (WBL) programs at polytechnics in Malaysia, with focus on individuals from low-income backgrounds. This study employing a quantitative method and purposive sampling was utilized for sample selection. Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) via Smart PLS 3.0 software was employed to analyze both measurement and structural models. The findings indicate a positive relationship between four RIASEC model and critical thinking competency.  The study concludes with discussion on the implications and limitations of the findings, along with suggestions for future research direction related to the RIASEC model’s impact on IR 4.0 competency.    


Amin, A. M., Corebima, A. D., Zubaidah, S., & Mahanal, S. (2020). The Correlation between Metacognitive Skills and Critical Thinking Skills at the Implementation of Four Different Learning Strategies in Animal Physiology Lectures. European Journal of Educational Research, 9(1), 143 - 163.
Andreas, H. (2018). The Fourth Industrial Revolution: Issues and Implications for Career Research and Practice. The Career Development Quarterly, 66, 192-204.
Athanasou, J. (2018). Vocational Interests and Job Choices Following an Acquired Disability: Results and Implications of an Idiographic Study. The Australian Journal of Rehabilitation Counselling, 24(1), 1-11.
Athanasou, J., A. . (2017). Promoting Career Development after Personal Injury. Sense Publishers.
Azmi, A. N., Kamin, Y., Noordin, M. K., & Nasir, A. N. M. (2018). Towards Industrial Revolution 4.0: Employers' Expectations on Fresh Engineering Graduates. International Journal of Engineering & Technology, 7(4.28), 267-272.
Bergner, S., Kanape, A., & Rybnicek, R. (2018). Taking an Interest in Taking the Lead: The Influence of Vocational Interests, Leadership Experience and Success on the Motivation to Lead. Applied Psychology, 68(1), 202-219.
BERNAMA. (2023, June 7). Youth unemployment rate declines in Q1. Malaysia Now.
Calma, A., & Davies, M. (2020). Critical thinking in business education: current outlook and future prospects. Studies in Higher Education, 1-17.
Calvin, C., & Juita, M. (2020). Youth Unemployment in Malaysia & the Region. Japan Economic Foundation (JEF).
Chiam, C. C., & Joshua, T. J. H. (2019). Higher Education 4.0: The Possibilities and Challenges. Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 5(2), 81-85.
Dass, A. (2018, August 6). Young and jobless in Malaysia. The Star.
Dinçer, N., & Kilinç, Z. (2018). The Analysis of Stress Levels of the Female Wrestlers Studying in Higher Education (A Case of Batman Provice). Asian Journal of Education and Training, 4(3), 156-160.
Dragoi, A. (2019). Entrepreneurial Thinking in Secondary Education: Fostering the development of employable skills among secondary school students Oulu University of Applied Sciences]. Oulu University.
Elfrida Yanty Siregar, Y., Rachmadtullah, R., Pohan, N., Rasmitadila, & Zulela, M. S. (2019). The impacts of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) on critical thinking in elementary school. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1175.
Espey, M. (2017). Enhancing critical thinking using team-based learning. Higher Education Research & Development, 37(1), 15-29.
Evanthia, K. Z. (2020). Fourth Industrial Revolution: Opportunities, Challenges, and Proposed Policies. In K. Z. Evanthia (Ed.), Industrial Robotics - New Paradigms. IntechOpen.
Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., Sarstedt, M., & Thiele, K. O. (2017). Mirror, mirror on the wall: a comparative evaluation of composite-based structural equation modeling methods. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 45(5), 616-632.
Hair, J. F., Matthews, L. M., Matthews, R. L., & Sarstedt, M. (2017). PLS-SEM or CB-SEM: updated guidelines on which method to use. Int. J. Multivariate Data Analysis, 1(2), 107-123.
Han, Y., & Sears, G. J. (2020). The Influence of Holland's Vocational Interests on Work‐Family Conflict: An Exploratory Analysis. Journal of Employment Counseling, 57(2), 66-84.
Hariyanti, N. K. D., Sudhana, I. G. P. F. P., Suwintana, I. K., & Suarta, I. M. (2017). Employability Skills Required by the 21st Century Workplace: A Literature Review of Labor Market Demand Proceedings of the International Conference on Technology and Vocational Teachers (ICTVT 2017).
Hawati, A. H., Gregory, H. W. S., & Suraya, I. (2019). Demarcating Households An Integrated Analysis of Income and Consumption. In K. R. Institution (Ed.),
Holland, J. L. (1959). A theory of occupational choice. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 6, 35– 45.
Holland, J. L. (1997). Making vocational choices: A theory of vocational personalities and work environments. Psychological Assessment Resources.
Isdianti, M. F., Erman, & Nasrudin, H. (2021). The Development of Stem (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) Based Inquiry Learning Packages to Train Students’ Critical Thinking Skill. JPPS (Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan Sains), 10(2), 1949- 1959.
Jabatan Tenaga Kerja Semenanjung Malaysia, J. (2018). Di Ambang Revolusi Industri 4.0. In J. T. K. S. M. Bahagian Dasar & Perancangan Strategik (BDPS) (Ed.), BDPS, JTKSM Newsletter (MyLabour Observer Risalah Tinjauan Sekitar Perburuhan Negara ed.). Wilayah Persekutuan Putrajaya: Jabatan Tenaga Kerja Semenanjung Malaysia.
Joynes, C., Rossignoli, S., & Fenyiwa Amonoo-Kuofi, E. (2019). 21st Century Skills: evidence of issues in definition, demand and delivery for development contexts (The K4D Emerging Issues report, Issue. UKaid.
Kamaruzaman, M. F., Hamid, R., Mutalib, A. A., & Rasul, M. S. (2019). Comparison of Engineering Skills with IR 4.0 Skills. International Journal of Online and Biomedical Engineering (iJOE), 15(10).
Kang, Y. T. Y. (2013). A Motivational Model of Person–Environment Fit: Psychological Motives as Drivers of Change. In L. K.-B. Amy & B. Jon (Eds.), Organizational Fit: Key Issues and New Directions, First Edition (pp. 22-49). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Khalid, K., & Ahmad, A. M. (2021). The relationship between employability skills and career adaptability: a case of undergraduate students of the United Arab Emirates. Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print).
Kozikoğlu, İ. (2019). Investigating Critical Thinking in Prospective Teachers: Metacognitive Skills, Problem Solving Skills and Academic Self-Efficacy. Journal of Social Studies Education Research, 10(2), 111-130.
Kisida, B., Bowen, D. H., & Greene, J. P. (2015). Measuring Critical Thinking: Results From an Art Museum Field Trip Experiment. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 9(sup1), 171–187. doi:10.1080/19345747.2015.1086915
Kristof-Brown, A., Zimmerman, R., D, & Johnson, E., C. (2005). Consequences of Individuals’ Fit at Work: A Meta-Analysis of Person–Job, Person–Organization, Person–Group, and Person–Supervisor Fit. Personnel Psychology, 58, 281–342.
Li, J., Xu, C., Li, C., & Zhang, H. (2018). Construction of Vocational Interests Scale for Young Chinese. Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology, 12.
Linh, N. Q., Duc, N. M., & Yuenyong, C. (2019). Developing critical thinking of students through STEM educational orientation program in Vietnam. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1340.
Loes, C. N., & Pascarella, E. T. (2017). Collaborative Learning and Critical Thinking: Testing the Link. The Journal of Higher Education, 88(5), 726-753.
Mashadza, I. T. (2019). The Relationship Between Person-environment Fit and Job Stress: A Vocational Interest Perspective University of Johannesburg].
Mater, N. R., Haj Hussein, M. J., Salha, S. H., Draidi, F. R., Shaqour, A. Z., Qatanani, N., & Affouneh, S. (2020). The effect of the integration of STEM on critical thinking and technology acceptance model. Educational Studies, 1-17.
Ministry of Finance, M. (2019). Tinjauan Ekonomi 2020. In M. o. Finance (Ed.), (pp. 170). Malaysia: Percetakan Nasional Malaysia Berhad.
Ministry of International Trade And Industry, M. (2018). Industry 4WRD: National Policy on Industry 4.0. In M. o. I. T. A. Industry (Ed.), (pp. 64). Malaysia: Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia.
Moneva, J. C., Miralles, R. G., & Rosell, J. Z. (2020). Problem Solving Attitude and Critical Thinking Ability of Students. International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH, 8(1), 138-149.
Mumme, B., & Cameron, R. (2019). The Future of Work in Australia: Preparing Graduates for Changing Work Patterns that Require New Skill Sets. In The Transition from Graduation to Work (pp. 65-84).
Nevalainen, M., Lunkka, N., & Suhonen, M. (2018). Work-based learning in health care organisations experienced by nursing staff: A systematic review of qualitative studies. Nurse Educ Pract, 29, 21-29.
Nielsen, K., Dawson, J., Hasson, H., & Schwarz, U. v. T. (2020). What about me? The impact of employee change agents’ person-role fit on their job satisfaction during organisational change. Work & Stress, 35(1), 57-73.
Nugraha, H. D., Kencanasari, R. A. V., Komari, R. N., & Kasda. (2020). Employability Skills in Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET). Innovation of Vocational Technology Education, 16(1), 1-10.
Nye, C. D., Su, R., Rounds, J., & Drasgow, F. (2012). Vocational Interests and Performance: A Quantitative Summary of Over 60 Years of Research. Perspect Psychol Sci, 7(4), 384-403.
Nye, C. D., Su, R., Rounds, J., & Drasgow, F. (2017). Interest congruence and performance: Revisiting recent meta-analytic findings. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 98, 138-151.
Orkibi, H. (2016). Highly artistic-social personalities buffer the effects of burnout on career commitment. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 50, 75–83.
Osman, M. M., Bachok, S., Muslim, S. A., & Bakri, N. I. M. (2015). Unemployment Issues and Problems in Kinta, Manjung and Kuala Kangsar, Perak, Malaysia. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 168, 389-399.
Paim, L. (2017). “Kemiskinan & Kerentanan” Penelitian Konsep dan Pengukuran dalam Era Revolusi Industri 4.0. Penerbit Universiti Putra Malaysia.
Phan, W. M. J., & Rounds, J. (2018). Examining the duality of Holland's RIASEC types: Implications for measurement and congruence. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 106, 22-36.
Rashid, F. (2020, April 9). COVID-19: Refleksi ketidaksamarataan pekerjaan dan pendidikan isi rumah B40. ASTRO AWANI.
Rouvrais, S., Remaud, B., & Saveuse, M. (2018). Work-based learning models in engineering curricula: insight from the French experience. European Journal of Engineering Education, 45(1), 89-102.
Sabdaningtyas, L., & Ambarita, A. (2019). The Development of Integrative Thematic Learning Tools Based on Problem Based Learning to Improve Critical Thinking of Students in Fourth Grade in Elementary School. Journal of Education and Practice, 10(30), Journal of Education and Practice.
Sheldon, K. M., Holliday, G., Titova, L., & Benson, C. (2019). Comparing Holland and Self-Determination Theory Measures of Career Preference as Predictors of Career Choice. Journal of Career Assessment, 28(1), 28-42.
Stupple, E. J. N., Maratos, F. A., Elander, J., Hunt, T. E., Cheung, K. Y. F., & Aubeeluck, A. V. (2017). Development of the Critical Thinking Toolkit (CriTT): A measure of student attitudes and beliefs about critical thinking. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 23, 91-100.
Sumit, P. (2020). Unemployment among educated youth: Implications for Indian demography. UGC Care Journal, 40(56), 1833-1841.
Swan, M. (2017). Is Technological Unemployment Real? An Assessment and a Plea for Abundance Economics. In Surviving the Machine Age (pp. 19-33).
Teng, W., Ma, C., Pahlevansharif, S., & Turner, J. J. (2019). Graduate readiness for the employment market of the 4th industrial revolution. Education + Training, 61(5), 590-604.
Ullah, A. K. M. A., Mohamad, S. M., Hassan, N. H., & Chattoraj, D. (2019). Global skills deficiency: perspectives of skill mobility in Southeast Asian countries. Asian Education and Development Studies, 8(4), 416-432.
Ümit, D. (2020). Investigating Students’ Scientific Creativity And Metacognitive Awareness Level According To Riasec Interest Inventory. European Journal of Education Studies, 7(5), 1-20.
van Vianen, A. E. M. (2018). Person–Environment Fit: A Review of Its Basic Tenets. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 5(1), 75-101.
Vuyk, M. A., & Kerr, B. A. (2019). Personality and vocational interests of creative adolescents from racial and ethnic minorities. Gifted and Talented International, 34(1-2), 116-128.
World Economic Forum. (2016). The Future of Jobs Employment, Skills and Workforce Strategy for the Fourth Industrial Revolution (Global Challenge Insight Report, Issue. W. E. F. s. Publications.
World Economic Forum. (2020). The Future of Jobs Report 2020 (The Future Jobs, Issue. W. E. F. Publication.
Zapalska, A. M., Nowduri, S., Imbriale, P., Wroblewski, B., & Glinski, M. (2018). A Framework for Critical Thinking Skills Development Across Business Curriculum Using the 21st Century Bloom’s Taxonomy. Interdisciplinary Education and Psychology, 2(2), 1-14.
How to Cite
ABD RAHMAN, Ani Liza; ABD RAHIM, Mohd Isa; ISMAIL, Nor Jannah. Assessing the RIASEC Model’s Impact on Critical Thinking in Industry 4.0. International Journal of Business and Technology Management, [S.l.], v. 6, n. 1, p. 325-340, mar. 2024. ISSN 2682-7646. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 13 june 2024.
English Section