Analysing the Relationship Between E-Leadership Readiness and Digital Transformation: A Case of Malaysian Private Higher Education Institution

  • Saubia Muzaffar
  • Suja Unnikrishnan


The study analyzed relationship between E-Leadership Readiness and Digital Transformation in one Private Higher Education Institution (PHEI). It investigated PHEI e-leadership readiness in either supporting or opposing the digital transition. This research was carried out with three main objectives, to evaluate the PHEI’s e-leadership readiness in understanding digital transformation, to establish whether PHEI’s e-leadership readiness is a significant predictor of digital transformation and to analyze the impact of Direction, Alignment, and Commitment framework on e-leadership qualities in one PHEI. The 100 participants were either lecturer, student, administrative staff, or others affiliated with PHEI.  The sample was obtained through convenience sampling technique and the Direction, Alignment, Commitment (DAC) questionnaire comprised of 36-items contributed to the understanding of e-leadership in digital transformation.12-items measured the subconstruct Direction, 12-items measured Alignment, and 12-items measured commitment which is based on the DAC framework of McCauley & Fick-Cooper (2020). Statistical procedure namely, Descriptive Statistics, Pearson Product-Moment Correlation, and Simple Linear Regression were used to analyze the data. The analysis revealed that e-leadership readiness and digital transformation level with a mean of 4.090 (Direction), 4.140 (Alignment), and 4.210 (Commitment) were deemed to be of a high level among PHEI. Furthermore, a significant equation, indicated that e-leadership readiness is a strong predictor of digital transformation, with 50.4% of the coefficient determination influencing the dependent variable. Finally, the strength of the association is determined by correlation, which is positive and strong (r=0.710**, p<0.01). Based on the result, it is formulated that DAC framework proves to be a core component of an organization digital transformation.    


Abdul Hamid, R. (2022). The role of employees’ technology readiness, job meaningfulness and proactive personality in adaptive performance. Sustainability, 14(23), 15696. doi:
Al-Ghaili, M. A. A., & Al-Harethi, A. A. M. (2019). Managers’ Readiness To Adopt E-Leadership. International Journal of Research, 6(10), 845-874.
Asima, M. N., Komariah, A., Nurdin, D., & Rahmawati, I. (2021). Teacher adaptability through E-leadership and vocational work environment in the era of digitalization. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Research of Educational Administration and Management (ICREAM 2020).
Auffret, J. P., Estevez, E., Marcovecchio, I., & Janowski, T. (2010, May). Developing a GCIO system: enabling good government through e-Leadership. In DG. O (pp. 82-88). DOI: 10.5555/1809874.1809892
Avolio, B. J., Sosik, J. J., Kahai, S. S., & Baker, B. (2014). E-leadership: Re-examining transformations in leadership source and transmission. Leadership Quarterly, 25(1), 105-131. DOI: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2013.11.003
Bhuvanij, K., Praneetpolgrang, P., & Sukvaree, T. (2023). Strategic Digital Leadership in the Private Sector for Digital Transformation Towards Enabling Sustainable Digital Economy in Thailand. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change, 17(1).
Browne, R. H. (1995). On the use of a pilot sample for sample size determination. Statistics in medicine, 14(17), 1933-1940.
Brunner, M., Gonzalez-Castañé, G., & Ravesteijn, P. (2021). How digital leadership competences and IT capabilities affect an organization's ability to digitally transform and adopt new technologies. Journal of International Technology and Information Management, 30(4), 139-156.
Chandrasekar, A., Mallis, E., Goel, S. and Hughes, M., 2020. Digital Leadership Readiness: Lessons from Singapore. Singapore: The Center for Creative Leadership (CCL), p.50. Accessed 8 January 2022 from ].
Chatterjee, S., Chaudhuri, R., Vrontis, D., & Giovando, G. (2023). Digital workplace and organization performance: Moderating role of digital leadership capability. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge, 8(1), 100334. doi:
Clark, E. (2018, May 21). Digital transformation: What is it. Educause Review.
Cohen, J. (1988). Set correlation and contingency tables. Applied psychological measurement, 4(12), 425-434.
Contreras, F., Baykal, E., & Abid, G. (2020). E-leadership and teleworking in times of COVID-19 and beyond: What we know and where do we go. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 3484. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2020.590271
European Commission. (2015). e-Leadership Digital Skills for SMEs. Retrieved from
Gong, Y., Janssen, M., & Weerakkody, V. (2019). Current and expected roles and capabilities of CIOs for the innovation and adoption of new technology. Proceedings of the 20th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research. DOI: 10.1145/3325112.3325214
Hadiyanto, H., Mukminin, A., Makmur, M., Hidayat, M., & Failasofah, F. (2013). Teaching in a digital era: English lecturers’ readiness toward the internet use in teaching and learning at selected higher education institutions in Indonesia. Asia-Pacific Collaborative Education Journal, 9(2), 113-124.
Hai, T. N., Van, Q. N., & Thi Tuyet, M. N. (2021). Digital transformation: Opportunities and challenges for leaders in the emerging countries in response to COVID-19 pandemic. Emerging Science Journal, 5, 21-36.
Hanelt, A., Bohnsack, R., Marz, D., & Antunes Marante, C. (2021). A systematic review of the literature on digital transformation: insights and implications for strategy and organizational change. Journal of Management Studies, 58(5), 1159-1197
Hinings, B., Gegenhuber, T., & Greenwood, R. (2018). Digital innovation and transformation: An institutional perspective. Information and Organization, 28(1), 52-61.
Larjovuori, R., Bordi, L., & Heikkilä-Tammi, K. (2018). Leadership in the digital business transformation. Proceedings of the 22nd International Academic Mindtrek Conference.
Lawshe, C. H. (1975). A quantitative approach to content validity. Personnel psychology.
Lee, M. R. (2016). Leading virtual project teams. doi:
Matt, C., Hess, T., & Benlian, A. (2015). Digital transformation strategies. Business & information systems engineering, 57(5), 339-343.DOI: 10.1007/s12599-015-0401-5
McCauley, C., & Fick-Cooper, L. (2020). Direction, alignment, commitment: Achieving better results through leadership. Center for Creative Leadership.
MUSTAJAB, D., Azies, B. A., IRAWAN, A., RASYİD, A., AKBAR, M. A., & HAMİD, M. A. (2020). Covid-19 Pandemic: What are the Challenges and Opportunities for e-Leadership? Fiscaoeconomia, 4(2), 483-497. Retrieved 14 1, 2022
Mwita, M. M., & Joanthan, J. (2019). Digital leadership for digital transformation. Electronic Scientific Journal, 10(4), 2082-2677.
Nambisan, S., Lyytinen, K., Majchrzak, A., & Song, M. (2017). Digital Innovation Management: Reinventing innovation management research in a digital world. MIS quarterly, 41(1).
Alasiri, N., & AlKubaisy, Z. (2022). Exploring the role of leadership, work environment, it alignment and company performance on the digital transformation: A study on the private sector companies in western region, Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Professional Business Review, 7(2), e0500.
Nwankpa, J. K., & Roumani, Y. (2016). IT capability and digital transformation: A firm performance perspective. Dublin,
Pallant, J. (2020). SPSS survival manual: A step by step guide to data analysis using IBM SPSS. Routledge
Parasuraman A, Colby CL. An Updated and Streamlined Technology Readiness Index: TRI 2.0. Journal of Service Research. 2015;18(1):59-74. doi:10.1177/1094670514539730
Ravesteijn, P., & Ongena, G. (2019). The role of E-leadership in relation to IT capabilities and digital transformation. IADIS Proceedings.
Sekaran, U. (2000). Research methods for business: A Skill-building approach. (3rd ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Tang, D. (2021). What is digital transformation? PACS, 64(1), 9-13
Tavakol, M., & Dennick, R. (2011). Making sense of Cronbach's alpha. International journal of medical education, 2, 53–55. doi:
Tavakol, M., & Dennick, R. (2011). Making sense of Cronbach's alpha. International journal of medical education, 2, 53–55. doi:
Ulas, D. (2019). Digital Transformation Process and SMEs. Procedia Computer Science, 158,662–671
Van Wart, M., Roman, A., Wang, X., & Liu, C. (2017). Integrating ICT adoption issues into (E-leadership theory). Telematics and Informatics, 34(5), 527-537. DOI: 10.1016/j.tele.2016.11.003
Verhoef, P. C., Broekhuizen, T., Bart, Y., Bhattacharya, A., Dong, J. Q., Fabian, N., & Haenlein, M. (2021). Digital transformation: A multidisciplinary reflection and research agenda. Journal of Business Research, 122, 889-901.
How to Cite
MUZAFFAR, Saubia; UNNIKRISHNAN, Suja. Analysing the Relationship Between E-Leadership Readiness and Digital Transformation: A Case of Malaysian Private Higher Education Institution. International Journal of Business and Technology Management, [S.l.], v. 6, n. 1, p. 15-30, mar. 2024. ISSN 2682-7646. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 17 apr. 2024.
English Section