Measuring the Content Validity of Middle Leadership Competence Model using Content Validity Ratio (CVR) Analysis

  • Norliza Samad UNIVERSITI PENDIDIKAN SULTAN IDRIS
  • Mohd Asri Mohd Noor
  • Mahaliza Mansor
  • Tajulashikin Jumahat

Abstract

This study aims to examine the content validity of Middle Leadership Competence Model using Lawshe’s CVR analysis. The study was carried out quantitatively using survey method. The four main competency constructs comprise of Leadership, Instructional, Governance and Self-emotional. A total of 109 items were formed and evaluated by nine field experts. The experts were purposely selected based on their expertise in educational leadership, competency development and psychometric. The results showed that 91 items met the minimum CVR value of 0.78 and were retained. While, 18 items were rejected from the item pool. The mean judgement of 0.89 (CVI) for the retained items shows that the instrument has the potential to be promoted as an effective tool to measure the middle leadership competence in school. Subsequently, in the future, it is recommended to conduct more sophisticated statistical analysis such as exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to scrutinize the factor structure and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) for model development.

References

Manaf A.R. (2017). Pembinaan dan Pengesahsahihan Model Kompetensi Guru Penolong Kanan Pentadbiran dan Akademik Sekolah Menengah Malaysia, (Unpublished).
Boyatzis, R. E. (1982). The Competent Manager: A Model for Effective Performance. Wiley.
Bryant, D. A. (2019). Conditions That Support Middle Leaders’ Work in Organisational and System Leadership: Hong Kong Case Studies. School Leadership and Management, 39(5), 415–433.
Bryant, D. A., & Rao, C. (2019). Teachers as Reform Leaders in Chinese schools International. Journal of Educational Management, 33(4), 663–677.
Bush, T. (2019). Collaborative School Leadership: Can it co-Exist with Solo Leadership in High Accountability Settings? Educational Management Administration and Leadership, 47(5), 661–662. https://doi.org/10.1177/1741143219853202
Campbell, D. T. & Fiske, D. W. (1959). Convergent and Discriminant Validation by the Multitrait-Multimethod Matrix. Psychological Bulletin, 56(2), 81-105.
Davis, L. (1992). Instrument Review: Getting the Most from a Panel Of Experts. Applied Nursing Research, 5(4), 194-197.
De Nobile, J. (2018). Towards a Theoretical Model of Middle Leadership in Schools. School Leadership & Management, 38(4), 395-416, http://doi.org.10.1080/13632434.2017.1411902
Forde, C., Hamilton, G., Bhroithe, M., Nihill M., & Rooney A. M. (2019). Evolving Policy Paradigms of Middle Leadership in Scottish and Irish Education: Implications for Middle Leadership Professional Development. School Leadership and Management, 39(3-4), 297–314.
Fraenkel, J. R, & Wallen, N. E. (2009). How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education (7th ed). New York. McGraw-hill.
Gilbert, G. E., & Prion, S. (2016). Making Sense of Methods and Measurement: Lawshe’s Content Validity Index. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 12(12), 530–531. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecns.2016.08.002
Grice, C. (2019). 007 Spies, Surveillance and Pedagogical Middle Leadership: For the Good of the Empire of Education. Journal of Educational Administration, 51(2), 165–181.
Grootenboer, P., Edwards-Groves, C., & Rönnerman, K. (2019). Understanding Middle Leadership: Practices and Policies. School Leadership and Management, 39(3–4), 251–254. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632434.2019.1611712
Gurr, D. (2019). School Middle Leaders in Australia, Chile and Singapore. School Leadership and Management, 39(3-4), 278–296.
Harris, A., & Jones, M. (2018). Middle Leaders Matter: Reflections, Recognition and Renaissance. School Leadership and Management, 37(3), 213–216. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632434.2017.1323398
Hoy, W. K., & Miskel, C. G. (2008). Educational Administration: Theory Research and Practice, McGraw Hill.
Lawshe, C. (1975). A Quantitative Approach to Content Validity. Personnel Psychology, 28(4), 563-575. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1975.tb01393.x
Leithwood, K., Harris, A., & Hopkins, D. (2020). Seven Strong Claims about Successful School Leadership Revisited. School Leadership and Management, 40(1), 5–22.
Likert, R. (1932). A Technique for the Measurement of Attitudes. Archives of Psychology, 140, 1-55.
Lipscombe, K., Grice, C., Tindall-Ford, S., & De-Nobile J. (2020). Middle Leading in Australian Schools: Professional Standards, Positions, And Professional Development. School Leadership and Management. http://doi.org.10.1080/13632434.2020.1731685
Lipscombe, K., Tindall-Ford, S., & Lamanna, J. (2021). School Middle Leadership: A Systematic Review. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 1-19. http://doi.org. 10.1177/1741143220983328
Lynn, M. (1986). Determination and Quantification of Content Validity. Nursing Research, 35(6), 382-385.
Mohd Matore, M. E. E., Idris, H., Abdul Rahman, N., & Khairani A. Z. (2017). Assessing the Content Validity of IKBAR using Content Validity Ratio. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 9(7), 255–257.
Mohd Noor, N., Mohamed Arif, M. A. S., Moh, E., & Yon, H. (2016). Assessing the Content Validity of Perjura using Content Validity Ratio. Journal of Advanced Research Design, 3(1), 13–19.
Momin, Z. A. (2018). Identifying the Competencies of Middle Managers Leading Successful Strategy Implementation. Dissertations and Theses Collection (Open Access). Singapore Management University. https://ink.library.smu.edu.sg/etd_coll/147
Polit, D. F., Beck, C. T., & Owen, S. V. (2007). Is the CVI an Acceptable Indicator of Content Validity? Appraisal and Recommendations. Research in Nursing & Health, 30(4), 459–467.
Rubio, D. M., Berg-Weger, M., Tebb, S. S., Lee, E. S., & Rauch, S. (2003). Objectifying Content Validity: Conducting A Content Validity Study in Social Work Research. Social Work Research, 27(2), 94–104. https://doi.org.10.1093/swr/27.2.94
Sekaran, U., & Bougie R. (2016). Research Methods for Business: A Skill Building Approach. John Wiley & Sons.
Suhaili, A., Osman, K., & Mohd Matore, M. E. E. (2020). Issues and Challenges of Subject Leadership Competency for Malaysian Head of Science Panels (HoSP). International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development, 9(2), 229–241. https://doi.org/10.6007/ijarped/v9-i2/7296
Beram, S., Awang, M., & Ismail, R. (2020). Pembangunan Model Kompetensi Pemimpin Pertengahan: Satu Kajian Reka Bentuk dan Pembangunan. Journal of Educational Research & Indegenous Studies Journal, 2(1).
Tilden, V., Nelson, C., & May, B. (1990). Use of Qualitative Methods to Enhance Content Validity. Nursing Research, 39(3), 172-175.
Waltz, C. F., Strickland, O. L., & Lenz, E. R. (2005). Measurement in Nursing and Health Research 3, New York. Springer.
Wan Mohamed, W. A., Che Abd Aziz, A. S., & Muhamad Ramzi, N. A. (2023). Hubungan Motivasi dengan Efikasi Kendiri Pemilihan Kerjaya di kalangan Pelajar Latihan Industri Politeknik Sultan Azlan Shah. International Journal of Advanced Research in Education and Society, 5 (3), 63-74.
White, P. (2000). The Leadership Role of Curriculum Area Middle Managers in Selected Victorian Government Secondary Schools. (Unpublished Doctor of Philosophy Thesis). The University of Mebourne, Melbourne.
Wilson, F. R., Wei P., & Schumsky D. A. (2012). Recalculation of the Critical Values for Lawshe’s Content Validity Ratio. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 45(3), 197–210. https://doi.org/10.1177/0748175612440286
Published
2023-12-01
How to Cite
SAMAD, Norliza et al. Measuring the Content Validity of Middle Leadership Competence Model using Content Validity Ratio (CVR) Analysis. International Journal of Business and Technology Management, [S.l.], v. 5, n. 4, p. 134-144, dec. 2023. ISSN 2682-7646. Available at: <https://myjms.mohe.gov.my/index.php/ijbtm/article/view/24737>. Date accessed: 21 july 2024.
Section
English Section