A Validated Human Resource Management (HRM) Model For Advancing Gender In The Leadership Hierarchy In The Managerial Sphere Of HRM With Resultant Benefits Of Organisational Success

  • Deepika Faugoo

Abstract

This is one of the few research studies that develops, tests and subsequently proposes a Human Resource Management (HRM) model for the advancement of women in the leadership hierarchy in the HRM domain with resultant benefits of organisational success in the Mauritian workplace. The conceptual theoretical HRM model was developed by an in-depth review of literature, investigating relevant theoretical and empirical aspects of HRM pertinent to the case of women in the HRM domain Mauritius has often been described as an economic miracle and has the most successful economy in Sub-Saharan Africa but gender inequality remains an unfulfilled intent. This resonates classically in the domain of Human Resource Management that even though having a compelling feminised image with women being the numerical majority, they remain concentrated in lower-level positions, with men predominating at senior levels and this is akin to the situation of women in the HRM domain internationally. The efficacy of this conceptual HRM model was gauged by carrying out a questionnaire survey from 106 women in the HRM domain from the different sectors of Mauritius. The empirical data was analysed by using statistical tools such as Correlation and Ordinal Regression Analysis. The causality and regression analysis resulted in seven ordinal regression models that culminated in the new & innovative HRM model that leads to the advancement of women in the HRM domain, reduces hurdles and barriers they experience, enhances their job contribution the cumulative effect of these variables in the long run would generate organisational success in the Mauritian workplace. The HRM model generated is an original contribution to the HRM and gender advancement literature and though it was validated by women in the HRM domain in Mauritius. It definitely can be extended to advancing different types of women in the work-force both in Mauritius and internationally.


 

References

Ackah,C., and Heaton, N.(2003). Human resource management careers: different paths for men and women. Career Development International, 8 (3),134-142
AHRPM.mu (2021) Membership profile of the AHRPM (2021)
Adler., N.J (1995). Competitive frontiers: Cross-cultural management in the 21st century.International Journal of Intercultural relations, 19(3), 523-537 Elsevier Science Ltd
Armstrong, M. (2006). A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice (10th ed.). London/Philadelphia: Kogan Page
Ainsworth. S & Pekarek, A (2022). REVIEW ARTICLE Gender in Human Resources: Hiding in plain sight. Human Resource Management Journal, 32 (4), 1-16 John Wiley & Sons Ltd,
Aktepe, S. O. (2020). Gender Inequality in Work Organizations: What HRM Practices Mean for Gender Inequality, In Macro and Micro-Level Issues Surrounding Women in the Workforce: Emerging Research and Opportunities, (1-36). IGI Global
Armstrong, M., and Taylor, S. (2014). Handbook of Human Resource Management 13th edn Kogan page
Armstrong, M., (2009a). Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice 11thEdn, 2009, Kogan page
Armstrong, M., (2006b) Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice 10th Edn Kogan page
Beer, M., Spector, B., Lawrence, P., Mills, D. Q., & Walton, R. (1984). Human resource management: A general manager’s perspective in Armstrong, M., (2009a, 2006b) Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice 10th & 11th Edn, 2009, Kogan page
Bennington, L. (2006). HRM Role in EEO: Sheep in Shepherd’s Clothing? Journal of Business Ethics,65(1), 13–21
Bollinger, A. S., & Smith, R. D. (2001). Managing organizational knowledge as a strategic asset. Journal of Knowledge Management, 5 (1), pp.8–18
Bolton, S., & Muzio, D. (2008). The paradoxical processes of feminization in the professions: the case of established, aspiring and semi-professions. Work, Employment and Society, 22 (2), 281–299.
Boxall P and Purcell J (2016), Strategy and Human Resource Management, London: Palgrave Macmillan
Brandl,J., Mayrhofer,W.,and Reichel, A.(2008a). The influence of social policy practices and gender egalitarianism on strategic integration of female HR directors. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 19(11),2113–213
Brandl,J., Mayrhofer,W., and Reichel, A.(2007b).Gender- egalitarian Culture and Differences in Strategic Integration among Women and Men in HR director positions. Management Research News, 30, (9), 634-645
Calinaud, V & Kokkranikal, J & Gebbels, (2020). Career Advancement for Women in the British Hospitality Industry: The Enabling Factors”. Work Employment and Society, 35, (4), 677–695
Callan, S., (2007). Implications of family-friendly policies for organizational culture: findings from two case studies. Work, employment and society, 21 (4), 673-691
Catalyst (2022) Women in Management (Quick take) Available at https://www.catalyst.org/research/women-in-management/
Chiu,W.C.K and Ng.C.W(2001a). The differential effects of work- and family-oriented women-friendly HRM on Organisational Commitment and Organisational Citizenship Behaviour: the case for single female employees in Hong Kong. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 12 (8), 1347-1364
Chiu,W.C.K., and Ng.C.,W.(1999b). Women-friendly HRM and organizational commitment: A study among women and men of organizations in Hong Kong. Journal of Occupational and Organisational Psychology, 72 (4), 485-502
Clef, T. (2013) Exploratory Data Analysis in Business and Economics: An Introduction Using SPSS, Stata, and Excel. Springer Science and Business Media. Cotter,
Cohen, D. J. (2015). HR past, present and future: A call for consistent practices and a focus on competencies. Human Resource Management Review, 25 (2), 205-215.
Ulrich, D & Younger, J., Brockbank, W & Ulrich, M. (2013). The State of the HR Profession. Human Resource Management, 52 (3), 457–472
Costa, G., & Gianecchini, M. (2007). Career diversity. Men's and women's careers in Human Resource Management. Revue Management et Avenir, 14(4),169-186
Dickens, L., (2006). What HRM means for gender equality? Human Resource Management Journal. 8 (1), 23- 40
Faugoo, D. (2015). Achieving organisational success by the advancement of gender to reach top positions in modern day contemporary workplaces: Can Human Resource Management (HRM) offer this much needed panacea? International Journal of Business and Management Study, 2 (1),123-128
Foley, M., Williamson, S., & Mosseri, S (2020). Women, work and industrial relations in Australia. Journal of Industrial Relations, 63 (3), 1-15
Glass, C., & Cook, A. (2018). Do women leaders promote positive change? Analyzing the effect of gender on business practices and diversity. Human Resource Management, 57(4), 823–837
Gooch. L., (1994). The Career Experiences of Women in Personnel. Women in Management Review: An International Journal, 9 (1), 17-20
Gokulsing, D & Tandrayen-Ragoobur, V. (2014). Gender, education and labour market: evidence from Mauritius. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy,34, (9/10), 609-633.
Gratton, L., Hope-Hailey, V., Truss, K., et al. (1999) Strategic Human Resource Management in Armstrong, M. (2009) Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice 11th Edn. Kogan page
Grant Thornton (2023) Women in Business 2023 The push for parity
Grant Thornton (2020) Women in Business 2020: Putting the Blueprint into action Available at https://www.grantthornton.global/globalassets/1.-member-firms/global/insights/women-in-business/2020/women-in- business-2020_report.pdf
Guest, D. E. (1997). Human resource management and performance: a review and research agenda. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, (8), pp. 263–276
Hyun S. Kim (2004). Topics in Ordinal Logistics Regression and its applications. Doctoral Thesis submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University
Hardin, E. (1991). The integration of women into professional personnel and labor relations work. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 44(2), 229-240
Harel., Tzafrir, S.S., and Baruch,Y. (2003). Achieving organisational effectiveness through promotion of women into managerial positions: HRM practice focus. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 14 (2), 247-263
Harewood AM (2014). Exploring gender definition in recent sociological scholarship In Calinaud, V & Kokkranikal, J & Gebbels, (2020). Career Advancement for Women in the British Hospitality Industry: The Enabling Factors. Work Employment and Society 35 (4), 677–695
HR Directory (2022) Staff profiles Ministry of Public Service & Institutional Reform
ILO (2020) International Labour Organisation Empowering Women at Work Company Policies and Practices for Gender Equality Available at https://www.ilo.org/756721.pdf
ILO (2019) International Labour Organisation ‘Women in Business and Management: The business case for change Available at www.ilo.org/publns
ILO (2019) Women in Business and Management, Available at https://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/newsroom/news/WCMS_701767/lang--en/index.htm
KPMG. (2015) “Evidence-based HR The bridge between your people and delivering business strategy” kpmg.com
Legge,K. (1987). Women in personnel management: Uphill climb or downhill slide? In: Spencer, A., Podmore, D. (Eds.): In a man's world: essays on women in male-dominated professions. Tavistock Publications: London, 33-60
Mastracci, S & Arreola, V (2016). Gendered Organizations: How Human Resource Management Practices Produce and Reproduce Administrative Man. Administrative Theory & Praxis, 38 (2),137-149.
Mackay, L. (1986). Personnel management in the public and private sectors. Industrial Relations Journal 17 (4), 304- 320.
McKinsey & Company (2018) Women and the Future of Work: A Window of Opportunity in Western Europe? (France). in International Labour Organisation (2019). Women in Business and Management, The business case for change. Available at t: www.ilo.org/publns
Mckinsey & Company (2019). Women in the workplace 2019. Available at https://www.mckinsey.com/featured- insights/diversity-and-inclusion/women-in-the-workplace
Mckinsey& Co (2007). Women matter-Gender diversity a corporate performance driver. available at www.mckinsey.com/
National Productivity and Competitiveness Council (2017). Global Competitiveness Report, Promoting female participation in the economy: Platform for smart ideas available at www.npcc.mauritius.org
OECD (2020). Policies and Practices to Promote Women in Leadership Roles in the Private Sector Report prepared by the OECD for the G20 EMPOWER Alliance Available at https://www.oecd.org/corporate/OECD-G20-EMPOWER- Women-Leadership.pdf
Office for National Statistics. (2021). Employment by occupation in Ainsworth, S., & Pekarek, A. (2022). Gender in Human Resources: Hiding in plain sight. Human Resource Management Journal, 32(4)
Priola, V & Brannan, M.J (2009) Between a rock and hard place: Exploring women’s experience of participation and progress in managerial careers. Equal Opportunities International, 28 (5) pp 378-399
Reichel, A & Scheibmayr, I & Brandl, J. (2020). The HR lady is on board: Untangling the link between HRM’s feminine image and HRM’s board representation. Human Resource Management Journal. 30(4) pp.1748-8583
Raghavi, K., & Gopinathan, N. (2013). Role of Human Resources as Change Agent in Enabling Equal Opportunity Practices. Journal of Economics, Business and Management, 1(3) pp. 300-303.
Reichel, A., Brandl, J., and Mayrhofer,W.(2010).The Strongest Link: Legitimacy of Top Management Diversity, Sex Stereotypes and the Rise of Women in Human Resource Management 1995-2004. Management revue 21 (3) pp.332- 352
Reskin, B. (2003). Getting It Right: Sex and Race Inequality in Work Organizations. Annual Review of Sociology. 26 (1) pp. 707-709
Ridgeway, C. L. (2011). Framed by Gender: How Gender Inequality Persists in the Modern World. pp.1-248.
Roos, P. A., and Manley, J.E. (1996). Staffing personnel: feminization and change in human resource management. Sociological Focus,39 (3), pp. 245-61
SHRM (2021). State of the Workplace Study Available at shrm.org
Stainback, K., Tomaskovic-Devey, D. and Skaggs, S, (2010). Organizational approaches to inequality: Inertia, relative power, and environments. Annual Review of Sociology, 36 (1), 225-247.
Steele, M. (1992) “Human Resource Management: An Opportunity for Women?”. In Towers, B. (1996) (Edn.) The Handbook of Human Resource Management. Oxford: Blackwell
Truss, C., (1999). Human resource management: gendered terrain? The International Journal of Human Resource Management,10 (2),180-200
Thierry A R (2006). Gender and Export-Led Poverty Reduction: A Strategic Imperative? In Calinaud, V & Kokkranikal, J & Gebbels, (2020). Career Advancement for Women in the British Hospitality Industry: The Enabling Factors. Work Employment and Society.35(4), 677–695
Tlaiss, H., and Kauser, S. (2011a). The impact of gender, family, and work on the career advancement of Lebanese women managers. Gender in Management: An International Journal 26(1), 8-36
Tlaiss, H. and Kauser, S., (2010b). Perceived organizational barriers to women's career advancement in Lebanon. Gender in Management: An International Journal. 25 (6), 462-496
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2021). Labor force statistics from the current population survey in Ainsworth, S., & Pekarek, A. (2022). REVIEW ARTICLE Gender in Human Resources: Hiding in plain sight. Human Resource Management Journal,32(4), 1–16.
Wirth, L., (2004) Breaking the glass ceiling ILO report, www.ilo.org, 2004
World Economic Forum (2022) Global Gender Gap Report INSIGHT REPORT JULY 2022Available at https://www.weforum.org/reports/global-gender-gap-report- 2022/
World Economic Forum (2022) Global Gender Gap Report 2022, Available at https://www.weforum.org/reports/global-gender-gap-report-2022
World Bank (2023) Women, Business & Law Report
(Armstrong, 2006; Mathis & Jackson, 2008; Snell & Bohlander, 2011)
Armstrong, M. (2006). A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice (10th ed.). London/Philadelphia: Kogan Page.
Bollinger, A. S., & Smith, R. D. (2001). Managing organizational knowledge as a strategic asset. Journal of Knowledge Management, 5, 8–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13673270110384365
Snell, S., & Bohlander, G. (2011). Managing Human resources (16th ed.). New York: South-Western, Cengage Learning
Beer, M., Spector B., Lawrence, P. R., Mills, D. Q., & Walton, R. E. (1984). Managing Human Assets. New York: The Free Press. 209
Published
2023-10-31
How to Cite
FAUGOO, Deepika. A Validated Human Resource Management (HRM) Model For Advancing Gender In The Leadership Hierarchy In The Managerial Sphere Of HRM With Resultant Benefits Of Organisational Success. International Journal of Business and Technology Management, [S.l.], v. 5, n. 3, p. 493-509, oct. 2023. ISSN 2682-7646. Available at: <https://myjms.mohe.gov.my/index.php/ijbtm/article/view/24538>. Date accessed: 13 june 2024.
Section
Articles