Measuring Undergraduate Architecture Students' Acceptance Using Artificial Intelligent Image Generator Bot for Conceptual Study: A Case Study of Midjourney

  • Sayed Muhammad Aiman Sayed Abul Khair
  • Mohammad Nazrin Zainal Abidin
  • Abdul Rahman Khamaruzaman
  • Izzat Anuar
  • Farid Al Hakeem Yuserrie


The integration of artificial intelligence (AI) in architecture and design education has been influenced by paradigm shifts in the Industry 5.0 era. This has resulted in the incorporation of computational thinking in early design studio tasks. However, there is a noticeable absence of a clear inclination towards utilising artificial intelligence (AI) in the process of architectural design creation or in evaluating the aesthetic attributes of such designs. The integration of artificial intelligence (AI) in the context of design education for undergraduate architecture students in Malaysia is a nascent area that has received limited attention thus far. The objective of this study is to identify the key factors that influence the acceptance and utilisation of artificial intelligence (AI) applications among undergraduate architecture students during their conceptual form study. The study employs the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology 2 (UTAUT2) framework to investigate seven (7) constructs. A survey encompassing 106 participants, consisting of first and second-year students, was administered to obtain a comprehensive understanding of students' perceptions and experiences. Descriptive statistics were subsequently employed to analyse the collected data. The results indicate that students possess optimistic expectations regarding the utility of AI applications in the context of their architectural conceptual study. AI applications are regarded as valuable tools that have the potential to enhance design performance, increase learning productivity, and accelerate task completion. The constructs of Hedonistic Motivation, Performance Expectancy, and Effort Expectancy exhibit notable significance, as indicated by their high mean scores. The attitudes and behavioural intention of students towards AI applications are influenced by hedonistic motivation and perceived price value. Certain students experience pleasure and a sense of fulfilment when utilising the applications. The process of adopting AI applications as a habit is a gradual one, with students displaying a tendency towards neutrality or a slightly positive attitude. Further investigation is warranted to explore the enduring impacts of artificial intelligence (AI) implementations on students' educational achievements, as well as to scrutinise particular attributes that contribute to improved performance and efficiency. Qualitative research methods have the potential to offer more profound understandings of students' experiences and the contextual factors that influence their acceptance and utilisation.



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How to Cite
ABUL KHAIR, Sayed Muhammad Aiman Sayed et al. Measuring Undergraduate Architecture Students' Acceptance Using Artificial Intelligent Image Generator Bot for Conceptual Study: A Case Study of Midjourney. International Journal of Business and Technology Management, [S.l.], v. 5, n. S3, p. 195-210, oct. 2023. ISSN 2682-7646. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 06 dec. 2023.