Durability Performance of Styrene Acrylic Emulsion –Treated Oil Palm Shell Concrete
Oil palm shell concrete, often known as OPS concrete, has been used in several areas of the construction industry. It is essential to investigate and understand the behaviour of OPS concrete over a long period to reach more reliable conclusions about the application of OPS in constructed buildings. This paper attempts to discuss in detail an experimental study on the durability of lightweight concrete produced from oil palm shell (OPS) treated with styrene acrylic emulsion (SAE) as a complete replacement for conventional coarse aggregate compared to untreated OPS concrete. Water absorption, intrinsic air permeability, porosity, carbonation depth, capillary absorption, and drying shrinkage are among the tests performed to establish the durability properties of SAE-treated OPS concrete. The effects of exposure in open-air curing conditions on the durability properties of SAE-treated OPS concrete are addressed. As a result, specimen S10 showed better performance in terms of water absorption and capillarity, permeability, porosity, carbonation depth, and drying shrinkage properties when compared to S20 and NT. On the surface of OPS, SAE particles serve as fillers for reinforced cementitious materials. As a result, it produces a high packing density and reduces the permeability of the concrete. At the same time, the durability of concrete has been improved. In conclusion, the test results showed that treated OPS concrete performed better than untreated OPS concrete when the concrete was subjected to open air curing conditions.
Alengaram, U. J., Mahmud, H., & Jumaat, M. Z. (2010). Comparison of mechanical and bond properties of oil palm kernel shell concrete with normal weight concrete. International Journal of Physical Sciences.
Alengaram, U. J., Muhit, B. A. Al, & Jumaat, M. Z. Bin. (2013). Utilization of oil palm kernel shell as lightweight aggregate in concrete - A review. Construction and Building Materials, 38, 161–172. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.08.026
Cabrera, J. G., & Lynsdale, C. J. (1988). A new gas permeameter for measuring the permeability of mortar and concrete. Magazine of Concrete Research, 40(144). https://doi.org/10.1680/macr.19126.96.36.199
Chaipanich, A., & Chindaprasirt, P. (2015). The properties and durability of autoclaved aerated concrete masonry blocks. In Eco-efficient Masonry Bricks and Blocks: Design, Properties and Durability. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-78242-305-8.00009-7
Hamada, H. M., Skariah Thomas, B., Tayeh, B., Yahaya, F. M., Muthusamy, K., & Yang, J. (2020). Use of oil palm shell as an aggregate in cement concrete: A review. Construction and Building Materials, 265, 120357. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.120357
Johnson Alengaram, U., Al Muhit, B. A., bin Jumaat, M. Z., & Jing, M. L. Y. (2013). A comparison of the thermal conductivity of oil palm shell foamed concrete with conventional materials. Materials and Design. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2013.04.078
Kosmatka SH, Kerkhoff B, P. W. (2011). Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures (Chapter 5: Aggregates for concrete). PCA Manual, (69792).
Maghfouri, M., Shafigh, P., & Aslam, M. (2018). Optimum Oil Palm Shell Content as Coarse Aggregate in Concrete Based on Mechanical and Durability Properties. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/4271497
Mannan, M. A., Alexander, J., Ganapathy, C., & Teo, D. C. L. (2006). Quality improvement of oil palm shell (OPS) as coarse aggregate in lightweight concrete. Building and Environment, 41(9), 1239–1242. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2005.05.018
Neville, A. (2012). Properties of Concrete - 5th Edition. In Pearson Education Limited.
Samouh, H., Rozière, E., & Loukili, A. (2017). The differential drying shrinkage effect on the concrete surface damage: Experimental and numerical study. Cement and Concrete Research, 102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2017.09.016
Shafigh, P., Ghafari, H., Mahmud, H. Bin, & Jumaat, M. Z. (2014). A comparison study of the mechanical properties and drying shrinkage of oil palm shell and expanded clay lightweight aggregate concretes. Materials and Design, 60(2014), 320–327. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2014.04.001
Shafigh, P., Mahmud, H. Bin, Jumaat, M. Z. Bin, Ahmmad, R., & Bahri, S. (2014). Structural lightweight aggregate concrete using two types of waste from the palm oil industry as aggregate. Journal of Cleaner Production. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.05.051
Shafigh, P., Salleh, S., Ghafari, H., & Bin Mahmud, H. (2018). Oil palm shell as an agricultural solid waste in artificial lightweight aggregate concrete. European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering. https://doi.org/10.1080/19648189.2016.1182084
Singh, R., Nayak, D., Pandey, A., Kumar, R., & Kumar, V. (2022). Effects of recycled fine aggregates on properties of concrete containing natural or recycled coarse aggregates: A comparative study. Journal of Building Engineering, 45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2021.103442
Swamynadh, V., & Muthumani, K. (2018). Properties of structural lightweight concrete containing treated oil palm shell as coarse aggregate. Asian Journal of Civil Engineering. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42107-018-0057-9
Teo, D. C.L., Mannan, M. A., Kurian, V. J. (2008). Durability Properties of Structural Lightweight Concrete Made from Oil Palm Shell (OPS). Australasian Structural Engineering Conference, 952–959.
Teo, D. C.L., Mannan, M. A., & Kurian, V. J. (2010). Durability of lightweight OPS concrete under different curing conditions. Materials and Structures/Materiaux et Constructions. https://doi.org/10.1617/s11527-008-9466-7
Teo, Delsye C.L., Mannan, M. A., & Kurian, J. V. (2006). Flexural behaviour of reinforced lightweight concrete beams made with oil palm shell (OPS). Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology. https://doi.org/10.3151/jact.4.459
Thong, C. ., Teo, D. C. ., & Ng, C. . (2015). Chloride Penetration Profile of Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) Treated Oil Palm Shell (OPS) Concrete. CONCREEP 2015: Mechanics and Physics of Creep, Shrinkage, and Durability of Concrete and Concrete Structures - Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Mechanics and Physics of Creep, Shrinkage, and Durability of Concrete and Concrete Structure, 1129–1136. https://doi.org/10.1061/9780784479346.135
Traore, Y. B., Messan, A., Hannawi, K., Gerard, J., Prince, W., & Tsobnang, F. (2018). Effect of oil palm shell treatment on the physical and mechanical properties of lightweight concrete. Construction and Building Materials. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.11.155
Yew, M. K., Yew, M. C., Beh, J. H., Saw, L. H., & Lim, S. K. (2021). Effects of pre-treated on dura shell and tenera shell for high strength lightweight concrete. Journal of Building Engineering, 42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2021.102493