Investigating the Toe Factors Influencing IOT Adoption and SMEs Performance in Pakistan: The Mediating Role of Organization Resilience

  • Syeda Khadija Mubeen
  • Chin Phaik Nie
  • Azlan Amran


The development of the fourth industrial revolution (Industry 4.0) suggests significant changes in the organization's dynamics. Despite its potential gains, IoT has been widely and effectively implemented by businesses, especially small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). In terms of IoT adoption, many developing nations are very far behind. Similarly, IoT adoption in the SME sectors of Pakistan remains in its inception. The research will apply the TOE framework, and its theoretical basis is the resource-based perspective (RBV). This study intends to investigate the impact of organizational resilience in mediating the link between IoT adoption and the performance of SMEs in manufacturing sectors. The data for this research will be collected using a questionnaire with a seven-point Likert scale from Pakistani SME owners, executives, and middle managers. On returned surveys, the Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) approach will be used. The empirical findings of this study will give managers and practitioners with helpful theoretical and practical insights for understanding the underlying variables for the effective adoption of IoT in the SME sector to improve company performance.


Abed, S. S. (2020). Social commerce adoption using TOE framework: An empirical investigation of Saudi Arabian SMEs. International Journal of Information Management, 53.
Acharya, A., Singh, S. K., Pereira, V., & Singh, P. (2018). Big data, knowledge co-creation and decision making in fashion industry. International Journal of Information Management, 42(May), 90–101.
Adomako, S., & Ahsan, M. (2022). Entrepreneurial passion and SMEs’ performance: Moderating effects of financial resource availability and resource flexibility. Journal of Business Research, 144, 122-135
Agyapong, A., Maaledidong, P. D., & Mensah, H. K. (2020). Performance outcome of entrepreneurial behavior of SMEs in a developing economy: the role of international mindset. Journal of Strategy and Management, 14(2), 227–245.
Ahani, A., Rahim, N. Z. A., & Nilashi, M. (2017). Firm performance through social Customer Relationship Management: Evidence from small and medium enterprises. International Conference on Research and Innovation in Information Systems, ICRIIS.
Aidoo, S. O., Agyapong, A., Acquaah, M., & Akomea, S. Y. (2021). The performance implications of strategic responses of SMEs to the covid-19 pandemic: Evidence from an African economy. Africa Journal of Management, 7(1), 74–103.
Ainin, S., Parveen, F., Moghavvemi, S., Jaafar, N. I., & Shuib, N. L. M. (2015). Factors influencing the use of social media by SMEs and its performance outcomes. Industrial Management and Data Systems, 115(3), 570–588.
Alkateeb, M. A., & Abdalla, R. A. (2021). Social media adoption and its impact on smes performance a case study of Palestine. Estudios de Economia Aplicada, 39(7).
Alraja, Mansour Naser, et al. "Technological innovation, sustainable green practices and SMEs sustainable performance in times of crisis (COVID-19 pandemic)." Information Systems Frontiers (2022): 1-25.
Alrousan, M. K., Al-Adwan, A. S., Al-Madadha, A., & Al Khasawneh, M. H. (2020). Factors affecting the adoption of e-marketing by decision makers in SMEs: Evidence from Jordan. International Journal of E-Business Research, 16(1).
Alshamaila, Y., Papagiannidis, S., & Li, F. (2013). Cloud computing adoption by SMEs in the north east of England: A multi-perspective framework. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 26(3), 250–275.
AlSharji, A., Ahmad, S. Z., & Abu Bakar, A. R. (2018). Understanding social media adoption in SMEs: Empirical evidence from the United Arab Emirates. Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, 10(2), 302–328.
Amini, M. (2016). Cloud Computing Adoption by SMEs in the Malaysia: A Multi-Perspective Framework based on DOI Theory and TOE Framework. 9(2).
Avery, G. C., & Bergsteiner, H. (2011). Sustainable leadership practices for enhancing business resilience and performance. Strategy & Leadership, 39(3), 5–15.
Awa, H. O., Ojiabo, O. U., & Emecheta, B. C. (2015). Integrating TAM, TPB and TOE frameworks and expanding their characteristic constructs for e-commerce adoption by SMEs. Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, 6(1), 76–94.
Badi, S., Ochieng, E., Nasaj, M., & Papadaki, M. (2021). Technological, organisational and environmental determinants of smart contracts adoption: UK construction sector viewpoint. Construction Management and Economics, 39(1), 36–54.
Baiyere, A., & Salmela, H. (2013). Information Systems : Transforming the Future 24 th Australasian Conference on Information Systems , 4-6 December 2013 , Melbourne Proudly sponsored by information infrastructures. 24th Australasian Conference on Information Systems, December, 4–6.
Baker, R. W. (Richard W. (2012). Membrane technology and applications. John Wiley & Sons.
Benson, K. E., Wang, G., Venkatasubramanian, N., & Kim, Y. J. (2018). Ride: A resilient IoT data exchange middleware leveraging SDN and edge cloud resources. Proceedings - ACM/IEEE International Conference on Internet of Things Design and Implementation, IoTDI 2018, 72–83.
Bhatiasevi, V., & Naglis, M. (2020). Elucidating the determinants of business intelligence adoption and organizational performance. Information Development, 36(1), 78–96.
Brah, S. A., & Lim, H. Y. (2006). The effects of technology and TQM on the performance of logistics companies. International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management, 36(3), 192–209.
Carcary, M., Maccani, G., Doherty, E., & Conway, G. (2018). Exploring the determinants of IoT adoption: Findings from a systematic literature review. In Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing (Vol. 330). Springer International Publishing.
Carr, A. S., & Pearson, J. N. (1999). Strategically managed buyer-supplier relationships and performance outcomes. In Journal of Operations Management (Vol. 17).
Chan, F. T. S., Yee-Loong Chong, A., & Zhou, L. (2012). An empirical investigation of factors affecting e-collaboration diffusion in SMEs. International Journal of Production Economics, 138(2), 329–344.
Chandra, S., & Kumar, K. N. (2018). Exploring factors influencing organizational adoption of augmented reality in e-commerce: Empirical analysis using technology-organization-environment model. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 19(3), 237–265.
Chatterjee, S., Rana, N. P., Dwivedi, Y. K., & Baabdullah, A. M. (2021). Understanding AI adoption in manufacturing and production firms using an integrated TAM-TOE model. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 170(May), 120880.
Chau, N. T., Deng, H., & Tay, R. (2021). A perception-based model for mobile commerce adoption in Vietnamese small and medium-sized enterprises. Journal of Global Information Management, 29(1), 44–67.
Chege, S. M., & Wang, D. (2020). The influence of technology innovation on SME performance through environmental sustainability practices in Kenya. Technology in Society, 60(June 2019), 101210.
Chen, Y., Yan, X., Fan, W., & Gordon, M. (2015). The joint moderating role of trust propensity and gender on consumers’ online shopping behavior. Computers in Human Behavior, 43, 272–283.
Chiappetta Jabbour, C. J., Fiorini, P. D. C., Ndubisi, N. O., Queiroz, M. M., & Piato, É. L. (2020). Digitally-enabled sustainable supply chains in the 21st century: A review and a research agenda. Science of the Total Environment, 725, 138177.
Cho, J., Cheon, Y., Jun, J. W., & Lee, S. (2022). Digital advertising policy acceptance by out-of-home advertising firms: a combination of TAM and TOE framework. International Journal of Advertising, 41(3), 500–518.
Chowdhury, M., Prayag, G., Orchiston, C., & Spector, S. (2019). Postdisaster Social Capital, Adaptive Resilience and Business Performance of Tourism Organizations in Christchurch, New Zealand. Journal of Travel Research, 58(7), 1209–1226.
Clohessy, T., & Acton, T. (2019). Investigating the influence of organizational factors on blockchain adoption: An innovation theory perspective. Industrial Management and Data Systems, 119(7), 1457–1491.
Commer, P. J., Sci, S., Hussain, A., Abdullah, O. Y., Shahzad, A., Othman, R. H., Abdullah, Y., & Doski, S. A. M. (2021). COVID-19 Impact on B2B E-Commerce: A Multi-Group Analysis of Sports and Surgical SME’s. In Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences (Vol. 15, Issue 1).
Cruz-Jesus, F., Pinheiro, A., & Oliveira, T. (2019). Understanding CRM adoption stages: empirical analysis building on the TOE framework. Computers in Industry, 109, 1–13.
Dadhich, M., & Hiran, K. K. (2022). Empirical investigation of extended TOE model on Corporate Environment Sustainability and dimensions of operating performance of SMEs: A high order PLS-ANN approach. Journal of Cleaner Production, 363, 132309.
Daoud, L., Marei, A., Al-Jabaly, S. M., & Aldaas, A. A. (2021). Moderating the role of top management commitment in usage of computer-assisted auditing techniques. Accounting, 7(2), 457–468.
Dewi, M. A. A., Hidayanto, A. N., Purwandari, B., Kosandi, M., & Budi, N. F. A. (2018). Smart city readiness model based on technology-organization-environment (TOE) framework and its effect on adoption decision. Proceedings of the 22nd Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems - Opportunities and Challenges for the Digitized Society: Are We Ready?, PACIS 2018.
Dobrovic, J., Lambovska, M., Gallo, P., & Timkova, V. (2018). Non-Financial Indicators and Their Importance I. Journal of Competitiveness, 10(2), 41–55.
EconomicSurvey. 2019. Economic Survey of Pakistan. Islamabad: Finance division, Governmnet of Pakistan, Available online: (accessed on 28 September 2021).
Effendi, M. I., Sugandini, D., & Istanto, Y. (2020). Social Media Adoption in SMEs Impacted by COVID-19: The TOE Model*. Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 7(11), 915–925.
Ehie, I. C., & Chilton, M. A. (2020). Understanding the influence of IT/OT Convergence on the adoption of Internet of Things (IoT) in manufacturing organizations: An empirical investigation. Computers in Industry, 115, 103166.
Eze, S. C., Olatunji, S., Chinedu-Eze, V. C., & Bello, A. O. (2018). Key success factors influencing SME managers’ information behaviour on emerging ICT (EICT) adoption decision-making in UK SMEs. Bottom Line, 31(3–4), 250–275.
Florida, R., & Davison, D. (2001). Gaining from green management: environmental management systems inside and outside the factory. California management review, 43(3), 64-84.
Gangwar, H., Date, H., & Ramaswamy, R. (2015). Understanding determinants of cloud computing adoption using an integrated TAM-TOE model. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 28(1), 107–130.
Gillani, F., Chatha, K. A., Sadiq Jajja, M. S., & Farooq, S. (2020). Implementation of digital manufacturing technologies: Antecedents and consequences. International Journal of Production Economics, 229.
Grover, V., & Goslar, M. D. (1993). The initiation, adoption, and implementation of telecommunications technologies in U.S. organizations. Journal of Management Information Systems, 10(1), 141–163.
Gui, A., Fernando, Y., Shaharudin, M. S., Mokhtar, M., Karmawan, I. G. M., & Suryanto. (2020). Cloud computing adoption using toe framework for Indonesia’s micro small medium enterprises. International Journal on Informatics Visualization, 4(4), 237–242.
Hamm, P., & Klesel, M. (2021). Success factors for the adoption of artificial intelligence in organizations: A literature review. 27th Annual Americas Conference on Information Systems, AMCIS 2021, August.
Hansen, E. B., & Bøgh, S. (2021). Artificial intelligence and internet of things in small and medium-sized enterprises: A survey. Journal of Manufacturing Systems, 58(August 2020), 362–372.
Hasan, S., Ali, M., Kurnia, S., & Thurasamy, R. (2021). Evaluating the cyber security readiness of organizations and its influence on performance. Journal of Information Security and Applications, 58.
Haseeb, M., Hussain, H. I., Ślusarczyk, B., & Jermsittiparsert, K. (2019a). Industry 4.0: A solution towards technology challenges of sustainable business performance. Social Sciences, 8(5).
Haseeb, M., Hussain, H. I., Ślusarczyk, B., & Jermsittiparsert, K. (2019b). Industry 4.0: A solution towards technology challenges of sustainable business performance. Social Sciences, 8(5).
Hassani, A., & Mosconi, E. (2022). Social media analytics, competitive intelligence, and dynamic capabilities in manufacturing SMEs. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 175(November 2021), 121416.
Horváth, D., & Szabó, R. Z. (2019). Driving forces and barriers of Industry 4.0: Do multinational and small and medium-sized companies have equal opportunities? Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 146(June), 119–132.
Hussain, A., Akbar, M., Shahzad, A., Poulova, P., Akbar, A., & Hassan, R. (2022). E-Commerce and SME Performance: The Moderating Influence of Entrepreneurial Competencies. Administrative Sciences, 12(1).
Iacovou, C. L., Benbasat, I., & Dexter, A. S. (1995). Organizations : and Impact Adoption of Technology. MIS Quarterly, 19(4), 465–485.
Igwe, & Sunny R. (2020). Technology adoption and sales performance of manufacturing small and medium enterprises in port harcourt. Journal of Marketing Development, 5(1), 44–58.
Iii, B. W. B., Xiao, B., & Xiao, B. (2019). Association for Information Systems Organizational Adoption of Blockchain Technology : An Ecosystem Perspective Organizational Adoption of Blockchain Technology : An Ecosystem Perspective.
Islam, A. K. M. N., Whelan, E., & Brooks, S. (2020). Does multitasking computer self-efficacy mitigate the impact of social media affordances on overload and fatigue among professionals? Information Technology and People, 34(5), 1439–1461.
J. Barney. (1991). RBV 1991.pdf.
Jayeola, O., Sidek, S., Rahman, A. A., Bali Mahomed, A. S., & Jimin, H. (2020). Contextual factors and strategic consequences of cloud enterprise resource planning (erp) adoption in Malaysian manufacturing SMEs: A conceptual framework. International Journal of Economics and Business Administration, 8(3), 176–201.
Jogaratnam, G. (2017). The effect of market orientation, entrepreneurial orientation and human capital on positional advantage: Evidence from the restaurant industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 60, 104–113.
Johnk, J., Weißert, M., & Wyrtki, K. (2021). Ready or Not, AI Comes— An Interview Study of Organizational AI Readiness Factors. Business and Information Systems Engineering, 63(1), 5–20.
Kahaner, L. (1997), Competitive Intelligence, Touchstone, New York, NY
Katebi, A., Homami, P., & Najmeddin, M. (2022). Acceptance model of precast concrete components in building construction based on Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Technology, Organization, and Environment (TOE) framework. Journal of Building Engineering, 45(July 2021), 103518.
Kiel, D., Arnold, C., & Voigt, K. I. (2017). The influence of the Industrial Internet of Things on business models of established manufacturing companies – A business level perspective. Technovation, 68(July), 4–19.
Kulkarni, M., & Patil, K. (2020). Block chain technology adoption using toe framework. International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research, 9(2), 1109–1117.
Kumar, S., Tiwari, P., & Zymbler, M. (2019). Internet of Things is a revolutionary approach for future technology enhancement: a review. Journal of Big Data, 6(1).
Langley, D. J., van Doorn, J., Ng, I. C. L., Stieglitz, S., Lazovik, A., & Boonstra, A. (2021). The Internet of Everything: Smart things and their impact on business models. Journal of Business Research, 122(January 2020), 853–863.
Lawes, R. A., & Kingwell, R. S. (2012). A longitudinal examination of business performance indicators for drought-affected farms. Agricultural Systems, 106(1), 94–101.
Malik, S., Chadhar, M., & Chetty, M. (2021). Factors affecting the organizational adoption of blockchain technology: An Australian perspective. Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2020-Janua, 5597–5606.
Maroufkhani, P., Iranmanesh, M., & Ghobakhloo, M. (2022). Determinants of big data analytics adoption in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Industrial Management and Data Systems, February.
Mei, L., Zhang, T., & Chen, J. (2019). Exploring the effects of inter-firm linkages on SMEs’ open innovation from an ecosystem perspective: An empirical study of Chinese manufacturing SMEs. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 144(April), 118–128.
Mittal, S., Khan, M. A., Romero, D., & Wuest, T. (2018). A critical review of smart manufacturing & Industry 4.0 maturity models: Implications for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). In Journal of Manufacturing Systems (Vol. 49, pp. 194–214). Elsevier B.V.
Mubarik, M. S., Devadason, E. S., & Govindaraju, C. (2020). Human capital and export performance of small and medium enterprises in Pakistan. International Journal of Social Economics, 47(5), 643–662.
Nagy, J., Oláh, J., Erdei, E., Máté, D., & Popp, J. (2018). The role and impact of industry 4.0 and the internet of things on the business strategy of the value chain-the case of hungary. Sustainability (Switzerland), 10(10).
Nair, J., Chellasamy, A., & Singh, B. N. B. (2019). Readiness factors for information technology adoption in SMEs: testing an exploratory model in an Indian context. Journal of Asia Business Studies, 13(4), 694–718.
Naveed, R. T., & Rehmani, M. (2022). Small and medium-sized enterprises failure in providing workers ’ rights concerning Sustainable Development Goals-2030 in Pakistan. October.
Ng, P. M. L., Lit, K. K., & Cheung, C. T. Y. (2022). Remote work as a new normal? The technology-organization-environment (TOE) context. Technology in Society, 70(June), 102022.
Nilakant, V., Walker, B., Van Heugten, K., Baird, R., & De Vries, H. (2014). Research Note: Conceptualising Adaptive Resilience using Grounded Theory. New Zealand Journal of Employment Relations, 39(1), 79–86.
Nistor, A., & Zadobrischi, E. (2022). Analysis and Estimation of Economic Influence of IoT and Telecommunication in Regional Media Based on Evolution and Electronic Markets in Romania. 195–217.
Ocloo, C. E., Xuhua, H., Akaba, S., Shi, J., & Worwui-Brown, D. K. (2020). The Determinant Factors of Business to Business (B2B) E-Commerce Adoption in Small- and Medium-Sized Manufacturing Enterprises. Journal of Global Information Technology Management, 191–216.
Parra, D. T., & Guerrero, C. D. (2020). Decision-making IoT adoption in SMEs from a technological perspective. Iberian Conference on Information Systems and Technologies, CISTI, 2020-June(June), 24–27.
Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. 2019. Available online: (accessed on 2 September 2021). PTA. 2015. Pakistan Tanners Association Annual Report 2015–2016. Available online: pta_annual_report_2010_2011.pdf (accessed on 2 September 2021).
Pateli, A., Mylonas, N., & Spyrou, A. (2020). Organizational adoption of social media in the hospitality industry: An integrated approach based on DIT and TOE frameworks. Sustainability, 12(17), 7132.
Pillai, R., & Sivathanu, B. (2020). Adoption of artificial intelligence (AI) for talent acquisition in IT/ITeS organizations. Benchmarking, 27(9), 2599–2629.
Pizam, A., Ozturk, A. B., Balderas-Cejudo, A., Buhalis, D., Fuchs, G., Hara, T., Meira, J., Revilla, R. G. M., Sethi, D., Shen, Y., State, O., Hacikara, A., & Chaulagain, S. (2022). Factors affecting hotel managers’ intentions to adopt robotic technologies: A global study. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 102(September 2021), 103139.
Qalati, s. A., li, w., vela, e. G., bux, a., barbosa, b., & herzallah, a. M. (2020). Effects of Technological, Organizational, and Environmental Factors on Social Media Adoption. Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 7(10), 989–998.
Qalati, Sikandar Ali, Li, W., Ahmed, N., Mirani, M. A., & Khan, A. (2021). Examining the factors affecting sme performance: the mediating role of social media adoption. Sustainability (Switzerland), 13(1), 1–24.
Qalati, Sikandar Ali, Ostic, D., Shuibin, G., & Mingyue, F. (2022). A mediated–moderated model for social media adoption and small and medium-sized enterprise performance in emerging countries. Managerial and Decision Economics, 43(3), 846–861.
Qalati, Sikander Ali, Yuan, L. W., Khan, M. A. S., & Anwar, F. (2021). A mediated model on the adoption of social media and SMEs’ performance in developing countries. Technology in Society, 64.
Ramdan, M. R., Aziz, N. A. A., Abdullah, N. L., Samsudin, N., Singh, G. S. V., Zakaria, T., Fuzi, N. M., & Ong, S. Y. Y. (2022). SMEs Performance in Malaysia: The Role of Contextual Ambidexterity in Innovation Culture and Performance. Sustainability (Switzerland), 14(3), 1–18.
Raza, A., Ikram, A. A., Amin, A., & Ikram, A. J. (2017). A review of low cost and power efficient development boards for IoT applications. FTC 2016 - Proceedings of Future Technologies Conference, December, 786–790.
Raza, S., Minai, M. S., Zain, A. Y. M., Tariq, T. A., & Khuwaja, F. M. (2018). Dissection of small businesses in Pakistan: Issues and directions. International Journal of Entrepreneurship, 22(4).
Rehman, A. U., & Anwar, M. (2019). Mediating role of enterprise risk management practices between business strategy and SME performance. Small Enterprise Research, 26(2), 207–227.
Rehman, K. U., Mata, M. N., Martins, J. M., Mariam, S., Rita, J. X., & Correia, A. B. (2021). Shrm practices employee and organizational resilient behavior: Implications for open innovation. Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, 7(2).
Ricci, R., Battaglia, D., & Neirotti, P. (2021). External knowledge search, opportunity recognition and industry 4.0 adoption in SMEs. International Journal of Production Economics, 240(June), 108234.
Rocchetta, S., & Mina, A. (2019). Technological coherence and the adaptive resilience of regional economies. Regional Studies, 53(10), 1421–1434.
Salam, S., Shams, A., & Hoque, M. M. (2019). the Role of Social Media and Effect of Relationship Marketing on Sme Performance in Bangladesh: Multi-Group Cfa. Asian People Journal (APJ), 2(1), 12–31.
Salimon, M. G., Kareem, O., Mokhtar, S. S. M., Aliyu, O. A., Bamgbade, J. A., & Adeleke, A. Q. (2021). Malaysian SMEs m-commerce adoption: TAM 3, UTAUT 2 and TOE approach. Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management.
Sallehudin, H., Aman, A. H. M., Razak, R. C., Ismail, M., Bakar, N. A. A., Fadzil, A. F. M., & Baker, R. (2020). Performance and key factors of cloud computing implementation in the public sector. International Journal of Business and Society, 21(1), 134–152.
Sallehudin, H., Kebangsaan, U., Razli, M., Razak, C., Malaysia, U., Nur, K., Abu Bakar, A., Firdause, A., Fadzil, M., & Baker, R. (2020). Performance And Key Factors Of Cloud Computing Implementation In The Public Sector 135. In International Journal of Business and Society (Vol. 21, Issue 1).
Samat, M. F., Yusoff, M. N. H., & Ismail, M. (2018). The Mediating Effect of Social Media Marketing Adoption between Competitive Intelligence and SME Performance. International Journal of Asian Social Science, 8(7), 379–387.
Samsudeen, S. N., Thelijjagoda, S., & Sanjeetha, M. B. F. (2021). Social Media Adoption: Small and Medium-sized Enterprises’ Perspective in Sri Lanka. Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 8(1), 759–766.
Sehgal, P. (2022). Role of IOT in Transformation of Marketing : A Quantitative Study of Opportunities and Challenges. 19(1), 5838–5849.
Shahzad, A., M Article, S. A., Commer Soc Sci, P. J., Hussain Othman Yeop Abdullah, A., Yeop Abdullah, O., Hassan Othman Yeop Abdullah, R., & Doski, S. A. (2021). A Service of zbw Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Leibniz Information Centre for Economics COVID-19 impact on B2B e-commerce: A multi-group analysis of sports and surgical SME’s Standard-Nutzungsbedingungen: COVID-19 Impact on B2B E-Commerce: A Multi-Group Analysis of Sports and Surgical SME’s. In PJCSS) Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences (Vol. 15, Issue 1). PJCSS.
Singh, R., Chandrashekar, D., Hillemane, B. S. M., Sukumar, A., & Jafari-Sadeghi, V. (2022). Network cooperation and economic performance of SMEs: Direct and mediating impacts of innovation and internationalisation. Journal of Business Research, 148, 116-130.
Sorri, K., Mustafee, N., & Seppänen, M. (2022). Revisiting IoT definitions: A framework towards comprehensive use. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 179(March).
Stentoft, J., Jensen, K. W., Philipsen, K., & Haug, A. (2019). Drivers and barriers for industry 4.0 readiness and practice: A SME perspective with empirical evidence. Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2019-Janua, 5155–5164.
Talero-sarmiento, L. H., Parra-s, D. T., & Parra-, D. T. (2021). Assessment of ICT policies for digital transformation in Colombia : technology readiness for IoT adoption in SMEs in the trading sector. 23(4), 412–431.
Tarutė, A., & Gatautis, R. (2014). ICT Impact on SMEs Performance. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 110, 1218–1225.
The Financial Daily. 2018. Pakistan Surgical Instrument Industry. The Financial Daily. Available online: https://www.pressreader. com/pakistan/the-financial-daily/20180724/281603831258792 (accessed on 8 September 2021)
Tornatzky, L. G., & Klein, K. J. (1982). Tornatzky_Klein_1982 Innovation Characteristics and Innovation Adoption-Imple- mentation A Meta-Analysis of Findings. In Ieee Transactions on Engineering Management (Vol. 29, Issue 1, pp. 28–43).
Urban, B., & Matela, L. (2022). The nexus between innovativeness and knowledge management: A focus on firm performance in the hospitality sector. International Journal of Innovation Studies, 6(1), 26–34.
Usman, U. M. Z., Ahmad, M. N., & Zakaria, N. H. (2019). The determinants of adoption of cloud-based ERP of Nigerian’s SMEs manufacturing sector using TOE framework and DOI theory. International Journal of Enterprise Information Systems, 15(3), 27–43.
Venkatesh, V., Smith, R. H., Morris, M. G., Davis, G. B., Davis, F. D., & Walton, S. M. (2003). quarterly user acceptance of information technology: toward a unified view1.
Vermanen, M., Rantanen, M. M., & Harkke, V. (2021). Ethical framework for IoT deployment in SMEs: individual perspective. Internet Research, 32(7), 185–201.
Walker, B. (Bernard), Nilakant, V., & Resilient Organisations (Programme : N.Z.). (n.d.). Building adaptive resilience : high-performing today, agile tomorrow, thriving in the future. 16.
Wang, Y. M., Wang, Y. S., & Yang, Y. F. (2010). Understanding the determinants of RFID adoption in the manufacturing industry. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 77(5), 803–815.
Wernerfelt, B. (1984). A Resource-based View of the Firm. 5(June 1982), 171–180.
Xu, W., Ou, P., & Fan, W. (2017). Antecedents of ERP assimilation and its impact on ERP value: A TOE-based model and empirical test. Information Systems Frontiers, 19(1), 13–30.
Yu, F., & Schweisfurth, T. (2020). Industry 4.0 technology implementation in SMEs – A survey in the Danish-German border region. International Journal of Innovation Studies, 4(3), 76–84.
Zhang, H., Li, F., Wang, J., Wang, Z., Shi, L., Sanin, C., & Szczerbicki, E. (2020). The Neural Knowledge DNA Based Smart Internet of Things. Cybernetics and Systems, 51(2), 258–264.
Zhu, K., Kraemer, K. L., & Xu, S. (2006). The process of innovation assimilation by firms in different countries: A technology diffusion perspective on e-business. Management Science, 52(10), 1557–1576.
Zhu, K., Kraemer, K. L., Xu, S., & Dedrick, J. (2004). Information technology payoff in E-Business environments: An international perspective on value creation of E-Business in the financial services industry. Journal of Management Information Systems, 21(1), 17–54.

How to Cite
MUBEEN, Syeda Khadija; PHAIK NIE, Chin; AMRAN, Azlan. Investigating the Toe Factors Influencing IOT Adoption and SMEs Performance in Pakistan: The Mediating Role of Organization Resilience. International Journal of Business and Technology Management, [S.l.], v. 5, n. 3, p. 175-192, sep. 2023. ISSN 2682-7646. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 24 june 2024.