Association Between Perceived Stress, Self-Control, Subjective Well-Being and Social Media Addiction During the Covid-19 Pandemic in Malaysia

  • Lee Jia Hao
  • Chiam Kok Yi
  • Chow Jing Keat
  • Pung Pit Wan


According to Malaysia’s statistic result from 2016 to 2021, people spend more and more time in social media and eventually addicted to it especially during the Covid-19 pandemic. The purpose of this study is to examine the predictive roles of perceived stress, self-control, and subjective well-being on young adults’ social media addiction in Malaysia during the period of Covid-19 pandemic. There were 152 respondents participated in this survey. They were 62 males and 90 females who are within the age of 18-30. The results showed that self-control and subjective well-being significantly predicted social media addiction while perceived stress did not significantly predict social media addiction. This study prove that self-control and subjective well-being are the factors to predict social media addiction. The findings are beneficial in developing an intervention or program to minimize social media addiction.


Bahar Moni, A. S., Abdullah, S., bin Abdullah, M. F. I. L., Kabir, M. S., Alif, S. M., Sultana, F., Salehin, M., Islam, S. M. S., Cross, W., & Rahman, M. A. (2021). Psychological distress, fear and coping among Malaysians during the Covid-19 pandemic. Plos One, 16(9), e0257304.
Baccarella, C. V., Wagner, T. F., Kietzmann, J. H., & McCarthy, I. P. (2018). Social media? It's serious! Understanding the dark side of social media. European Management Journal, 36(4), 431–438.
Benson, T., Sladen, J., Liles, A., & Potts, H. W. W. (2019). Personal wellbeing score (PWS)—a short version of ONS4: Development and validation in social prescribing. BMJ Open Quality, 8(2), e000394.
Brevers, D., & Turel, O. (2019). Strategies for self-controlling social media use: Classification and role in preventing social media addiction symptoms. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 8(3), 554–563.
Du, J., van Koningsbruggen, G. M., & Kerkhof, P. (2018). A brief measure of social media self-control failure. Computers in Human Behavior, 84, 68–75.
Fung, S. F., Kong, C. Y. W., & Huang, Q. (2020). Evaluating the dimensionality and psychometric properties of the brief self-control scale amongst Chinese university students. Frontiers in Psychology, 10.
George, D., & Mallery, P. (2003). Using SPSS for windows step by step: A simple guide and reference. (4th ed.). Allyn and Bacon.
Gökalp, Z. Ş., Saritepeci, M., & Durak, H. Y. (2022). The relationship between self-control and procrastination among adolescent: The mediating role of Multi Screen addiction. Current Psychology, 12, 1-12.
Hawi, N. S., & Samaha, M. (2016). The relations among social media addiction, self-esteem, and life satisfaction in university students. Social Science Computer Review, 35(5), 576–586.
Hirschmann, R. (2021, October 19). Main leisure activities during COVID-19 MCO malaysia 2020. Statista.
James, L. (2015, March 19). Relax: Benefits of leisure go beyond the moment newsroom. Ucmerced.
Kessler, S. (2021, October 20). What age range is considered a young adult? Joincake.
Lin, T. T., Kononova, A., & Chiang, Y.-H. (2019). Screen addiction and media multitasking among American and Taiwanese users. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 60(6), 583–592.
Liu, X., Zhao, Y., Li, J., Dai, J., Wang, X., & Wang, S. (2020). Factor structure of the 10-Item perceived stress scale and measurement invariance across genders among Chinese adolescents. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 537.
Longstreet, P., & Brooks, S. (2017). Life satisfaction: A key to managing internet & social media addiction. Technology in Society, 50, 73–77.
Malone, C., & Wachholtz, A. (2017). The relationship of anxiety and depression to subjective well-being in a mainland Chinese sample. Journal of Religion and Health, 57(1), 266– 278.
Müller, J. (2021, April 7). Social media users as a percentage of the total population Malaysia 2021. Statista.
Nazir, F. B., Omar, N., Aripin, M. A., & Hisham, M. (2020). A case study of social media addiction among Malaysians. Semantic Scholar. Among-Nazir-Omar/c7502a5fabd159dd5cd9963c1303689040d270d8
Panarese, P., & Azzarita, V. (2021). The impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on lifestyle: How young people have adapted their leisure and routine during lockdown in Italy. YOUNG, 29(4_suppl), S35–S64.
Sağar, M. E. (2021). Predictive role of cognitive flexibility and self-control on social media addiction in University Students. International Education Studies, 14(4), 1.
Satici, S. A. (2018). Facebook addiction and subjective well-being: A study of the mediating role of shyness and loneliness. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 17(1), 41–55.
Schulz van Endert, T. (2021). Addictive use of digital devices in young children: Associations with delay discounting, self-control and academic performance. Plos One, 16(6).
Senturk, E., Genis, B., & Cosar, B. (2021). Social media addiction in young adult patients with anxiety disorders and depression. Alpha Psychiatry, 22(5), 257–262.
Sophia, T. T. W. (2018, January 23). Social media addiction: Meaning, symptoms, causes, effects, and treatment. The Wisdom Post.
Soraci, P., Ferrari, A., Barberis, N., Luvarà, G., Urso, A., del Fante, E., & Griffiths, M. D. (2020). Psychometric analysis and validation of the Italian bergen Facebook addiction scale. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 21, 451-467.
Stead, H., & Bibby, P. A. (2017). Personality, fear of missing out and problematic internet use and their relationship to subjective well-being. Computers in Human Behavior, 76, 534-540.
Webster, D., Dunne, L., & Hunter, R. (2021). Association between social networks and subjective well-being in adolescents: A systematic review. Youth & Society, 53(2), 175- 210.
Zack, J. (2020, September 9). Most Asia pacific consumers prefer staying at home, businesses are responding. The Star. asia-pacific-consumers-prefer-staying-at-home-businesses-are-responding
Zhao, C., Xu, H., Lai, X., Yang, X., Tu, X., Ding, N., Lv, Y., & Zhang, G. (2021). Effects of online social support and perceived social support on the relationship between perceived stress and problematic smartphone usage among Chinese undergraduates. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 14, 529–539.
Zhao, L. (2021). The impact of social media use types and social media addiction on subjective well-being of college students: A comparative analysis of addicted and non-addicted students. Computers in Human Behavior Reports, 4, 100122.
How to Cite
JIA HAO, Lee et al. Association Between Perceived Stress, Self-Control, Subjective Well-Being and Social Media Addiction During the Covid-19 Pandemic in Malaysia. International Journal of Business and Technology Management, [S.l.], v. 5, n. 2, p. 67-73, june 2023. ISSN 2682-7646. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 19 july 2024.