Malaysian’s Online Purchase Intention on Health Supplements Amidst COVID-19 Pandemic

  • Siew Chein, Teo
  • Jing Han, Soo
  • Tick Hui, Oh


This study explores factors affecting the online purchase intention towards health supplements in Malaysia amidst the COVID-19 pandemic by examining the impact of health consciousness, perceived value, new normal, and social influence on online purchase intention. The survey was created in Google forms and distributed via purposive sampling through social media platforms. Target respondents are generations Y and Z consumers with experience purchasing health supplements online. Data collection was carried out in December 2020, and 200 valid respondents gave feedback to the survey. Based on data analysed using Smart-PLS, health awareness, perceived value, new normal and social influence positively affect online purchase intention and account for 60.5% of its variation. New normal is the most significant predictor, followed by perceived value, health consciousness, and social influence based on the effect size and standard beta value. There are scarce past studies that combine online purchase intentions and health supplements. Furthermore, consumers' behaviour and perception toward certain products will likely change during a crisis. Concerning this ground, this study appears to be the first to explore how the current pandemic has impacted and shaped consumers' willingness to purchase health supplements online in the Malaysian context. It explicitly considers new normal as one of the predictors on top of health consciousness, perceived value, and social influence. 


Aggrawal, P., Jun, S. Y. and Huh, J. H. (2011). Scarcity messages-A consumer competition perspective. Journal of Advertising, 40(3), 19-30.
Ahmad, S. N. B. and Omar, A. (2018). Influence of perceived value and personal values on consumers repurchase intention of natural beauty product. International Journal of Supply Chain Management, 7(2), 116-125.
Alam, J. (2020). Buying behavior under coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic situation: a online perspective case in Bangladeshi shoppers. Chinese Business Review, 19(3), 82-90.
Ali, T., Alam, A. and Ali, J. (2021). Factors Affecting Consumers’ Purchase Behaviour for Health and Wellness Food Products in an Emerging Market. Global Business Review, 22(1), 151-168.
Ateke, B. W. and Didia, J. U. D. (2018). Consumer Knowledge and Purchase Intention of Healthcare Product Consumers in Rivers State. International Journal of Business & Law Research, 6(1)1:1-7
Athapaththu, J. C. and Kulathunga, K. M. S. D. (2018). Factors Affecting Online Purchase Intention: Effects of Technology and Social Commerce. International Business Research, 11(10), 111-128.
Aulia, S. A., Sukati, I. and Sulaiman, Z. (2016). A review: Customer perceived value and its Dimension. Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies, 3(2), 150-162.
Bukhari, F. A., Rizwan, M., Liaquat, K., Ashraf, R., Ali, S. M., Azeem, S. Siddique, M. and Ali, M. A. (2013). An investigation of customers to explain the purchase intentions for expensive mobile phone. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research, 3(11), 87-96.
Charm, T, Coggins, B, Robinson, K, and Wilkie, J (2020, August 4). The great consumer shift: Ten charts that show how US shopping behavior is changing. Mckinsey & Company. Retrieved from
Cisneros-Sandoval, W. E., Sandoval-Castro, J., Flores-González, M. E. and Millones-Liza, D. Y. (2021). Perceived value and consumer loyalty of healthy products in the Peruvian market, Lima 2021. Journal of Management Information and Decision Sciences, 24(5), 1-7.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
Doan, T.-T. T. (2020). Factors affecting online purchase intention: A study of Vietnam online customers. Management Science Letters, 10(10), 2337-2342.
Euromonitor (2019). Dietary Supplements in Malaysia. Retrieved from
Gan, C. and Wang, W. (2017). The influence of perceived value on purchase intention in social commerce context. Internet Research, 27(4), 772-785.
Hair, J.F., Hult, T.M., Ringle, C.M. and Sarstedt, M. (2017). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). United Stated: SAGE Publication, Inc.
Hamam, M., Di Vita, G., Zanchini, R., Spina, D., Raimondo, M., Pilato, M. and D’Amico, M. (2022). Consumers’ Attitudes and Purchase Intention for a Vitamin-Enriched Extra Virgin Olive Oil. Nutrients,14, 1658.
Hasanov, J. and Khalid, H. (2015). The impact of website quality on online purchase intention of organic food in Malaysia: A WebQual model approach. Procedia Computer Science, 72, 382-389.
Henseler, J., Ringle, C.M. and Sarstedt, M. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. 43,115–135.
Hung, S. W., Cheng, M. J. and Lee, C. J. (2021). A new mechanism for purchasing through personal interactions: Fairness, trust and social influence in online group buying. Information Technology and People. 35(5), 1563-1589.
Keller, K.L. (2001). Building customer based brand equity: A blueprint for creating strong brands. Cambridge, MA: Marketing Science Institute, 3-27.
Larios-Gómez, E., Fischer, L., Peñalosa, M. and Ortega-Vivanco, M. (2021). Purchase behavior in COVID-19: a cross study in Mexico, Colombia, and Ecuador. Heliyon, 7:e06468. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06468
Liu, C., Sun, C.-K., Chang,Y.-C.,Yang, S.-Y., Liu, T. and Yang, C.-C. (2021). The Impact of the fear of COVID-19 on Purchase Behavior of Dietary Supplements: Integration of the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Protection Motivation Theory. Sustainability, 13, 12900.
Malhotra, N., Nunan, D., & Birks, D. (2017). Marketing Research: An Applied Approach. (5 ed.) Pearson.
Manideep, A. S., Reddy, P. S. and Reddy, M. S. K. (2019). Consumers’ perception on purchase of wellness products: An empirical analysis. Int. J. Innov. Technol. Explor. Eng, 8(7), 1715-1719.
Marhaban, N.A, Rahim, N.A., Azmi, F.R., Hamdan, N. and Musa, H. (2020). Purchase Intention of Customers towards Health Products in Melaka. International Journal of Human and Technology Interaction, 4(1), 53-58.
Mcleod, S. (2021). Social Influence. Simple Psychology. Retrieved from
Moussaïd, M., Kämmer, J. E., Analytis, P. P. and Neth, H. (2013). Social influence and the collective dynamics of opinion formation. PloS one, 8(11), e78433.
National Pharmaceutical Regulation Agency (n.d.). Health Supplements. Retrieved from
Neger, M. and Uddin, B. (2020). Factors affecting consumers’ internet shopping behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic: Evidence from Bangladesh. Chinese Business Review, 19(3), 91-104.
Newsom, J. T., McFarland, B. H., Kaplan, M. S., Huguet, N. and Zani, B. (2005). The health consciousness myth: implications of the near independence of major health behaviors in the North American population. Social Science & Medicine, 60(2), 433-437.
OECD. (2021, January 8). The role of online platforms in weathering the COVID-19 shock. OECD Policy Responses to Coronavirus (COVID-19), 1-25. Retrieve from
Peng, L., Zhang, W., Wang, X. and Liang, S. (2019). Moderating effects of time pressure on the relationship between perceived value and purchase intention in social E-commerce sales promotion: Considering the impact of product involvement. Information & Management, 56(2), 317-328.
Santoso, A., Bidayati, U. and Hendar, H. (2019). Factors Influencing Online Purchase Intention: A Consumer Behavioral Study on Indonesia. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change, 9(5), 1-17.
Sarstedt, M. and Mooi, E. (2019). A Concise Guide to Market Research, Berlin, Germany:Springer.
Singh, A. and Verma, P. (2017). Factors influencing Indian consumers' actual buying behaviour towards organic food products. Journal of Cleaner Production, 167, 473-483.
Sirico, F., Miressi, S., Castaldo, C., Spera, R., Montagnani, S., Di Meglio, F. and Nurzynska, D. (2018). Habits and beliefs related to food supplements: Results of a survey among Italian students of different education fields and levels. PloS one, 13(1), e0191424.
Tam, A. Y., Baharun, R., & Sulaiman, Z. (2019). Consumer perceived value in understanding herbal medicine consumption: A conceptual model. Journal of Business and Social Review in Emerging Economies, 5(1), 9-18.
Tan, H.S (2019, December 27). What the Rise of Health-Conscious Consumers Means for Health Supplements in Malaysia. Retrieved from
Tan, Y.Y., Wong, C.H., Hou, A.H.N. and Lim K. Y. (2019). Factor Affecting Purchase Intention of Health Supplement in Malaysia. INTI Journal, 5, 1-9.
Thakur, M. and Nahar, A. (2022) Assessing the influence of COVID-19 pandemic on consumers’ intention towards the purchase of green food products - An empirical study. Academy of Marketing Studies Journal, 26(4), 1-13.
Tjokrosaputro, M., & Cokki, C. (2020, June). The role of social influence towards purchase intention with value perception as mediator: a study on Starbucks coffee as an environmentally friendly product. In 8th International Conference of Entrepreneurship and Business Management Untar (ICEBM 2019) (pp. 183-189). Atlantis Press.
Udomkitmongkol, N. (2016). A study of factors influencing consumer’s consumption of dietary supplements in Bangkok. [Master of the Business Administration dissertation, Bangkok University]
Vodus. (2021a, Mar 16). Impact on E-commerce in Malaysia since Covid-19 began. Retrieved from
Vodus. (2021b, Aug 12). Is health supplement consumption on the rise in Malaysia? Retrieved from
Weerasena, B., Ferlito, C. and Bellavite, P. (2021), Dietary Supplements in the Malaysian Context: Policy Recommendations for Enhancing Freedom of Choice and Healthcare Savings, CME Policy Paper No 1, Subang Jaya, Malaysia
Wong, Y.Q., Tan, B.C., Lau, T.C. and Khan, N (2021). Purchase intention towards dietary supplements during COVID-19 pandemic: consumers’ perspective. Food Research, 5(5), 294-299.
Wulf, J.H & Johnson, J. A. (2020, May 7). Welcome to the New Normal: How COVID-19 has changed us. Articles & E-books.
Y.L.M. (2020, May 21). Covid-19: What does the 'new normal' mean? The Star. Retrieved fom
How to Cite
TEO, Siew Chein,; SOO, Jing Han,; OH, Tick Hui,. Malaysian’s Online Purchase Intention on Health Supplements Amidst COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Business and Technology Management, [S.l.], v. 5, n. 1, p. 351-363, mar. 2023. ISSN 2682-7646. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 26 june 2024.