Blockchain Technology Model Towards Smart Agriculture: A Proposed Model

  • Cheng Ling Tan
  • Sook Fern Yeo
  • Kim Hua Tan
  • Kavigtha Mohan Kumar

Abstract

The objective of this study is to examine the challenges created by blockchain technology to the agriculture stakeholders. Besides that, it is also noteworthy to understand that two important theories underlie the integration towards achieving the objectives of developing the blockchain technology for smart agriculture are the Grounded Theory and will conceptualise the Technology-Organisation-Environment (TOE) Theory. This study employs a qualitative approach because it can extract the complex description of the blockchain technology towards smart agriculture that involves various agriculture sector stakeholders. Semi-structured in-depth interviews will be conducted in six states: Perlis, Kedah, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang and Sarawak as part of the research to get a more in-depth understanding of the profiles and better understanding on the challenges created by blockchain technology to the agriculture stakeholders. Drawing on the high value of smart agriculture principles, this study reconciles a comprehensive blockchain technology model and draw connections with the challenges faced by various stakeholders. This study expands knowledge on blockchain technology in supporting smart agriculture by looking into the blockchain technology attributes in terms of traceability, visibility, security and accessibility, as well as the challenges created by blockchain technology to the agriculture stakeholders. This study output will boost the modernisation process in the agriculture sector, managing the demand and supply of national food and agriculture supply. The underlying trend of agricultural research is discovered to be primarily embedded in scientific investigations from technologies’ perspectives. Researching in smart agriculture is crucial but remains scanty due to the challenges facing at the different levels in the supply chain. As such, the novelty fits within this research model are unavailable to the researchers’ best knowledge.

References

Awwad, M., Kalluru, S. R., Airpulli, V. K., Zambre, M. S., Marathe, A. and Jain, P. (2018). Blockchain Technology for Efficient Management of Supply Chain. Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, 1-10.
Alshamaila, Y., Papagiannidis, S. and Li, F. (2013). Cloud computing adoption by SMEs in the north east of England: a multi-perspective framework. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 26 (3), 250–275.
Baker, J. (2012). The Technology–Organisation–Environment Framework. In: Dwivedi, Y., Wade, M., Schneberger, S. (eds) Information Systems Theory. Integrated Series in Information Systems, vol 28. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-6108-2_12
Braun, V., Clarke, V., Hayfield, N. and Terry, G. (2018). Thematic analysis. In P. Liamputtong (Eds.), Handbook of Research Methods in Health Social Sciences (pp. 1–18). Singapore: Springer
Chatterjee, S., Rana, N. P., Dwivedi, Y. K. and Baabdullah, A. M. (2021). Understanding AI adoption in manufacturing and production firms using an integrated TAM-TOE model. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 170, 120880.
Chau, N.T., Hepu, D. and Richard, T. (2020). Critical determinants for mobile commerce adoption in Vietnamese small and medium-sized enterprises. Journal of Marketing Management, 36, 456–487.
Chittipaka, V., Kumar, S., Sivarajah, U., Bowden, J.L.H. and Baral, M.M. (2022). Blockchain Technology for Supply Chains operating in emerging markets: an empirical examination of technology-organisation-environment (TOE) framework. Annals of Operations Research, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10479-022-04801-5
Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative inquiry & research design: Choosing among five approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Demestichas, K., Peppes, N., Alexakis, T. and Adamopoulou, E. (2020). Blockchain in Agriculture Traceability Systems: A Review. Applied Sciences, 10(12), 1-22.
DePietro, R., Wiarda, E. and Fleischer, M. (1990). The context for change: Organization, technology and environment, Lexington Books: Lexington, MA., pp. 151-175.
Esmaeilian, B., Sarkis, J., Lewis, K. and Behdad, S. (2020). Blockchain for the future of sustainable supply chain management in Industry 4.0. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 163, 105064
Erol, I., Ar, I.M., Ozdemir, A.I., Peker, I., Asgary, A., Medeni, I.T. and Medeni, T. (2020). Assessing the feasibility of blockchain technology in industries: evidence from Turkey. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 34(3),746–769.
Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations. (2018). Sustainable food systems: Concept and framework. http://www.fao.org/3/ca2079en/CA2079EN.pdf
Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations. (2017). The future of food and agriculture – Trends and challenges. Rome.
Graticola, I. L. (November 23, 2020). IoT-Based Smart Agriculture in Malaysia for Poverty, Borgen Magazine. Retrieved at https://www.borgenmagazine.com/iot-based-smart-agriculture/
Gurtu, A. and Johny, J. (2019). Potential of blockchain technology in supply chain management: a literature review. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 49(9), 881–900.
Kamble, S. S., Gunasekaran, A. and Sharma, R. (2020). Modeling the blockchain enabled traceability in agriculture supply chain. International Journal of Information Management, 52 (June 2020), 1-16.
Kamilaris, A., Fonts, A. and Prenafeta-Boldύ, F.X., (2019). The rise of blockchain technology in agriculture and food supply chains. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 91, 640–652.
Kittipanya-ngam, P. and Tan, K.H. (2020). A framework for food supply chain digitalisation: lessons from Thailand. Production Planning & Control, 31(2-3), 158-172.
Kros, J.F., Liao, Y., Kirchoff, J.F., & Zemanek Jr., J.E. (2019). Traceability in the supply chain. International Journal of Applied Logistics, 9(1), 1–22.
Kshetri, N. 2018. Blockchain’s roles in meeting key supply chain management objectives. International Journal of Information Management. 39, 80-89.
Kuan, K.K., and Chau, P.Y. (2001). A perception-based model for edi adoption in small businesses using a technology-organisation-environment framework. Information & Management, 38 (8), 507-521.
Lee, O-K., Wang, M., Lim, K.H., & Peng, Z. (2009). Knowledge management systems diffusion in Chinese enterprises: A multistage approach using the technology-organisation-environment framework. Journal of Global Information Management, 17(1), 70-84.
Liu, M. (2008). Determinants of e-commerce development: An empirical study by firms in Shaanxi, China, 4th International Conference on Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing, 9177-9180.
Liu, F., Rhim, H., Park, K., Xu, J. and Lo, C. K. Y. (2021). HACCP certification in food industry: Trade-offs in product safety and firm performance. International Journal of Production Economics, 231, 1-12.
Mirabelli, G. and Solina, V. (2020). Blockchain and agricultural supply chains traceability: research trends and future challenges. Procedia Manufacturing, 42, 414-421.
Ministry of Economic Affairs (2019). Shared Prosperity Vision 2030 (pg. 5-20). Federal Government Administrative Centre, Putrajaya, Malaysia.
Niknejad, N., Ismail, W., Bahari, M., Hendradi, R. and Salleh, A. Z. (2021). Mapping the research trends on blockchain technology in food and agriculture industry: A bibliometric analysis. Environmental Technology & Innovation, 21, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eti.2020.101272.
Oliveira, T. and Martins, M.F.O. (2011). Literature review of information technology adoption models at firm level. The Electronic Journal Information Systems Evaluation, 14 (1), 110-121.
Pan, M.J. and Jang, W.Y. (2008). Determinants of the adoption of enterprise resource planning within the technology-organisation-environment framework: Taiwan's communications. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 48 (3), 94-102.
Paliwal V., Chandra S. and Sharma S. (2020). Blockchain technology for sustainable supply chain management: A systematic literature review and a classification framework. Sustainability, 12(18), 1-39.
Patelli, N. and Mandrioli, M. (2020). Blockchain technology and traceability in the agrifood industry. Journal of Food Science, 85(11), 3670-3678.
Pettit, T.M. (2008). Supply chain resilience: Development of a conceptual framework, An assessment tool and an implementation process. PhD Thesis. Graduate school of the Ohio state University.
Plecher, H. (December 15, 2020). Gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate in Malaysia 2025, Statista. Retrieved at https://www.statista.com/statistics/318977/gross-domestic-product-gdp-growth-rate-in-malaysia/
Prashar, D., Jha, N., Jha, S., Lee, Y. and Joshi, G.P. (2020). Blockchain-based traceability and visibility for agricultural products: A decentralised way of ensuring food safety in India. Sustainability, 12 (8), 1-20.
Queiroz, M. M., Fosso Wamba, S., De Bourmont, M. and Telles, R. (2020). Blockchain adoption in operations and supply chain management: empirical evidence from an emerging economy, International Journal of Production Research, doi: 10.1080/00207543.2020.1803511
Saberi, S., Kouhizadeh, M., Sarkis, J. and Shen, L. (2019). Blockchain technology and its relationships to sustainable supply chain management. International Journal of Production Research, 57 (7), 2117-2135.
Salazar, M. and Holbrook, A. 2008. Some Notes on Theories of Technology, Society and Innovation Systems for S&T Policy Studies. CPROST Report 08–02. Vancouver, BC: Centre for Policy Research on Science and Technology Simon Fraser University.
Sylvester, G. (Ed.), 2019. E-agriculture in action: Blockchain for agriculture: Opportunities and challenges. the food and agriculture organisation of the United Nations and the International Telecommunication Union, Bangkok.

Tambi, M. F. and Abu Dardak, R. (November 2, 2020). Emerging Industry Revolution 4.0 and its relationships with the agriculture sector in Malaysia, FFTC Agriculture Policy Platform (FFTC-AP). Retrieved at https://ap.fftc.org.tw/article/2618
Teo, T.S.H., Ranganathan, C. and Dhaliwal, J. (2006). Key Dimensions of Inhibitors for the Deployment of Web-Based Business-to-Business Electronic Commerce. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 53 (3), 395-411.
The World Bank (December 17, 2020). World Bank Malaysia Economic Monitor (December 2020): Sowing the Seeds, Malaysia Economic Monitor. Retrieved at https://www.worldbank.org/en/country/malaysia/publication/world-bank-malaysia-economic-monitor-december-2020-sowing-the-seeds
Thume, M., Lange, J., Unkel, M., Prange, A. and Schürmeyer, M. (2021, March 4). Blockchain-based traceability in the food industry: requirements analysis along the food supply chain. https://doi.org/10.31219/osf.io/uyb64
Tian F. (2017). 14th International Conference on Service Systems and Service Management. IEEE; 2017. A supply chain traceability system for food safety based on HACCP, blockchain & Internet of things, pp. 1–6.
Tradingeconomics.com (2021). Malaysia GDP from Agriculture. Department of Statistics Malaysia. Retrieved at https://tradingeconomics.com/malaysia/gdp-from-agriculture
Tan, C.L. and Yeo, S.F. (2020). Tourist experience on traditional pastries in UNESCO heritage city. British Food Journal, 122(12), 3885-3897.
Tan, Z. Y. (November 2, 2020). Agritech: Smart agriculture for smallholders, The Edge Malaysia. Retrieved at https://www.theedgemarkets.com/article/agritech-smart-agriculture-smallholders
van Hoek, R. (2019). Exploring blockchain implementation in the supply chain. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 39(6/7/8), 829–859.
van Remko, H. (2020). Research opportunities for a more resilient post-COVID-19 supply chain–closing the gap between research findings and industry practice. International Journal of Operations & Production Management,40(4), 341–355.
Xiong H, Dalhaus T, Wang P and Huang J (2020). Blockchain technology for agriculture: Applications and rationale. Frontier. Blockchain, 3(7), 1-7.
Xu, J., Guo, S., Xie, D., and Yan, Y. (2020). Blockchain: A new safeguard for agri-foods. Artificial Intelligence in Agriculture, 4, 153-161.
Xu, P., Lee, J., Barth, J.R. and Richey, R.G. (2021). Blockchain as supply chain technology: considering transparency and security. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.
Yeo, S.F., Tan, C.L., Teo, S.L. and Tan, K.H., The Role of Food Apps Servitization on Repurchase Intention: A Study of FoodPanda, International Journal of Production Economics, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpe.2021.108063..ijpe.2021.108063.
Published
2023-03-31
How to Cite
LING TAN, Cheng et al. Blockchain Technology Model Towards Smart Agriculture: A Proposed Model. International Journal of Business and Technology Management, [S.l.], v. 5, n. 1, p. 249-260, mar. 2023. ISSN 2682-7646. Available at: <https://myjms.mohe.gov.my/index.php/ijbtm/article/view/21946>. Date accessed: 21 july 2024.
Section
Articles