The Space Syntax Characteristics of Spatial Configuration in Frank O. Gehry’s Projects
Frank O. Gehry cannot be classified as deconstructivism, but he always pursued a unique language of form and a unique work method. His space exhibits the characteristic of distributed spatial composition through division and establishes an organic coupling method through the central area. This paper aims to explore via quantitative data regarding Frank Gehry’s freeform architecture. As a methodology, the spatial syntax was used as a framework for analysis to investigate the characteristics of the internal spatial structure resulting from the morphological characteristics of Frank Gehry's freeform architecture. The result showed that four target buildings show a similar degree of partial integration in each independent space and a high overall degree of integration, indicating that the area’s texture is systematized. In the target buildings, public spaces such as lobbies or exhibitions show a high degree of integration and control, which indicates that the room with solid centrality and surrounding areas are structured with a systematic hierarchy. It was statistically proven that spatial recognition for wayfinding has a higher efficiency in Frank Gehry's architecture, which has a hierarchical spatial composition in a unique form, than in a box-type building. In his projects, the clear perception of the space is considered by forming a hierarchy between the public space and the subspace according to the volume of the area.
Bae, Y. J., & Cho, J. Y. (2011). A study on the spatial structure of space syntax in Frank Gehry's museum architecture. Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal, 20(5), 59-67.
Balboa, R. A., & Scaroni, F. (2017). Frank Gehry: I have an idea. domusweb. it. Editoriale Domus Spa. Retrieved March, 8.
Beim, A., Bundgaard, C., & Hvejsel, M. F. (2015). Tectonic vocabulary and materialization: Discourse on the future of tectonic architectural research in the Nordic countries. Nordisk Arkitekturforskning, (1), 85-106.
Bennis, W. (2003). Frank Gehry: Artist, Leader, and" Neotenic". Journal of Management Inquiry, 12(1), 81-87.
Bodo, C. (2018). Art in hospitals. Economia della Cultura, (4), 533-542.
Boland Jr, R. J., Collopy, F., Lyytinen, K., & Yoo, Y. (2008). Managing as designing: Lessons for organization leaders from the design practice of Frank O. Gehry. Design issues, 24(1), 10-25.
Bottazzi, R. (2018). Digital Architecture Beyond Computers: Fragments of a Cultural History of Computational Design. Bloomsbury Publishing. 103-112.
Bridge, N. (2015). Architecture 101: From Frank Gehry to Ziggurats, an Essential Guide to Building Styles and Materials. Simon and Schuster. 101-112.
Caetano, I., & Leitão, A. (2020). Architecture meets computation: an overview of the evolution of computational design approaches in architecture. Architectural Science Review, 63(2), 165-174.
CBC. (2015). Frank Gehry: Most architecture today has 'no sense of design, no respect for humanity'. Retrieved from https://www.cbc.ca/radio/thecurrent/reporting-assault-online-not-to-police-and-frank-gehry-on-today-s-architecture-1.2907293/frank-gehry-most-architecture-today-has-no-sense-of-design-no-respect-for-humanity-1.2907296
Celani, G. (2012). Digital fabrication laboratories: Pedagogy and impacts on architectural education. In Digital Fabrication (pp. 469-482). Birkhäuser, Basel.
Charalambides, J. E. (2019). Rediscovering the essence in a classical order through analysis and deconstruction: contradicting study through the methods of John Ruskin and Jacques Derrida. Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research.
Charitonidou, M. (2021, March). Frank Gehry’s Self-Twisting Uninterrupted Line: Gesture-Drawings as Indexes. In Arts (Vol. 10, No. 1, p. 16). Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute.
Cohen, S. (2013). Creating a ‘falsely objectified tradition’: the face of art or history, myth, money, and name. A review-essay of Pacific Standard Time. Los Angeles Art 1945–1980. Rethinking History, 17(3), 413-433.
Corona, V. P. (2011). Memory, Monsters, and Lady Gaga. The Journal of Popular Culture, 46(4), 725-743.
Dimendberg, E. (2021). Frank Gehry: Catalogue Raisonné of the Drawings; Volume One, 1954–1978, by Jean-Louis Cohen.
Filler, M. (2007). Makers of Modern Architecture: From Frank Lloyd Wright to Frank Gehry (Vol. 1). New York Review of Books.
Fischer, T. (2012). Geometry rationalization for non-standard architecture. Architecture Science, 5(5), 25-47.
Fixsen, A. (2014). What Is Frank Gehry Doing About Labor Conditions in Abu Dhabi. Architectural Record.
Forbes. (2015). Frank O. Gehry's Emotional Architecture. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/tomteicholz/2015/10/23/frank-gehrys-emotional-architecture/?sh=496fc71e449f
Foster, H. (2013). The art-architecture complex. Verso Books. 66-72.
Fujita, H. (2019). A history and geography of contemporary architecture. SAJ-Serbian Architectural Journal, 11(2), 307-320.
Galenson, D. (2008). The greatest architects of the twentieth century: Goals, methods, and life cycles (No. w14182). National Bureau of Economic Research. 24-36.
Garcia Alvarado, R., & Jofre Muñoz, J. (2012). The control of shape: origins of parametric design in architecture in Xenakis, Gehry and Grimshaw.
Gehry, F. (2013). From Shiva to Disney: Frozen Motion. New Perspectives Quarterly, 30(4), 19-23.
Gehry, F., Lloyd, M., & Shelden, D. (2020). Empowering design: Gehry partners, Gehry technologies and architect‐led industry change. Architectural Design, 90(2), 14-23.
Giegold, C. P. (2021). Walt Disney Concert Hall, 2003 Los Angeles, California, USA: Architect, Frank Gehry. In Modern Theatres 1950–2020 (pp. 380-389). Routledge.
Gilbert-Rolfe, J., & Gehry, F. O. (2002). Frank Gehry: the city and music. Psychology Press. 48-57.
Goldberger, P. (2015). Building Art: the life and work of Frank Gehry. Vintage. 43-48.
Hanson, M. H., & Herz, R. S. (2011). A “toolbox approach” for developing thoughtfully structured, creative art experiences. Art Education, 64(1), 33-38.
Harris, B. E. (2013). Review Essay: Pacific Standard Time (PST) Presents: Modern Architecture in LA. The Public Historian, 35(4), 44-59.
Hartoonian, G. (2002). Frank Gehry: roofing, wrapping, and wrapping the roof. The Journal of Architecture, 7(1), 1-31.
Hoteit, A. (2015). Deconstructivism: Translation from philosophy to architecture. Canadian Social Science, 11(7), 117-129.
Isenberg, B. (2012). Conversations with Frank Gehry. Knopf. 24-36.
Iwamoto, L. (2013). Digital fabrications: architectural and material techniques. Princeton Architectural Press. 64-78.
Johnson, M. (2013). Out of Practice. Journal of Architectural Education, 67(2), 321-323.
Joye, Y. (2011). A review of the presence and use of fractal geometry in architectural design. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 38(5), 814-828.
Junaidy, D. W., & Nagai, Y. U. K. A. R. I. (2017). The characteristic of thought of digital architect. Int. J. Creat. Future Herit.(TENIAT), 5(1).
Jung, C., Al Qassimi, N., & Awad, J. (2021). The Evolution of Dynamicity in Architecture of Frank Gehry. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering Innovation, 3(3), 18-30.
Karaca, A. (2021). A review of architectural periods and comparing with today’s architecture. International Journal of Development Research, 11(01), 43835-43838.
Katz, B. M. (2018). The measure of all things: Toward an architecture of information. Technology| Architecture+ Design, 2(2), 261-264.
Kauffman, J. (2012). Sketches of Frank Gehry by Sydney Pollack. Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, 71(2), 244-245.
Kessler, W., Lautner, J., Quigley, R., Ito, T., Kellogg, K. B., ... & Gehry, F. O. (2013). Living Rooms in 80's: review of 20 works. GA. Global architecture: Houses, (134), 88-127.
Lee, H. W., Seo, J. H., & Kim, Y. S. (2013). A Study on Changing Process of Nonlinear Expression Methods appeared in Frank Gehry's works according to Digital Archhitecture's introduction. Journal of The Korean Digital Architecture Interior Association, 13(4), 5-12.
Lee, J. I. (2018). A Study on Frank Gehry's Architectural Changes After the Art Gallery of Ontario. Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Planning & Design, 34(2), 95-106.
Lee, J. K., & Lee, K. B. (2011). A study on digital design process of the materialization of free form design architecture. Journal of The Korean Digital Architecture Interior Association, 11(2), 13-19.
Lin, Z. (2013). Perspective of Digital Architecture World. In Applied Mechanics and Materials (Vol. 392, pp. 909-912). Trans Tech Publications Ltd.
Martin, R. (2011). Financial imaginaries: toward a philosophy of the city. Grey Room, 60-79.
Mitrache, G. (2012). Architecture, art, public space. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 51, 562-566.
Mohamed, E. N. E. A. (2014). The impact of digital architecture on freehand sketches through design process. Emirates J Eng Res, 19, 49-60.
Ockman, J. (2011). What is democratic architecture?: the public life of buildings. Dissent, 58(4), 65-72.
Okwudili, A. S. (2016). Architectural vocabulary of different cultures. Эпоха науки, (8).
Ouroussoff, N. (2010). Building museums, and a fresh Arab identity. New York Times, 26.
Patterson, M. (2012). The role of the public institution in iconic architectural development. Urban Studies, 49(15), 3289-3305.
Pauker, B. (2013). Frank Gehry. Foreign Policy, (201), 24.
Peters, O. R., & Olabode, O. (2018). Comparative Analysis between Art and Architecture. Online Journal of Art and Design, 6(2).
Picon, A. (2010). Digital Architecture and the Temporal Structure of the Internet Experience. Critical Studies, 32, 223.
Ping, S., & Lu, X. (2013). Changing of Digital Architecture Design towards the Mass Customization. The Architect, 6.
Samdanis, M., & Lee, S. H. (2017). White space and digital remediation of design practice in architecture: A case study of Frank O. Gehry. Information and Organization, 27(2), 73-86.
Steele, J. (2012). Perpetuating the California Mythology of Progress. Design Issues, 28(4), 69-77.
Theodore, D. (2014). Archaeology of the Digital. Journal of Architectural Education, 68(1), 146-148.
Vitale, F. (2010). Jacques Derrida and the politics of architecture. SAJ-Serbian Architectural Journal, 2(3), 215-226.
Waldrep, G. C. (2012). A Short History of Frank Gehry. The Midwest Quarterly, 53(4), 349.
Westfall, C. W. (2011). Toward the End of Architecture. Journal of Architectural Education, 64(2), 149-157.
Zipf, C. W. (2019). Almost as good as a Frank Gehry: Doris Duke, Maya Lin, and the gendered politics of public space in Newport, Rhode Island. In Suffragette City (pp. 159-178). Routledge.