Enhancing Project Integration Using Cloud-based Building Information Modelling: A Conceptual Model

  • Shan Jiancheng
  • Chai Changsaar
  • Gui Hunchuen
  • Xiong Yaoli


Construction industry is a project-based endeavour in which its success heavily rests upon the intertwined collaborative gumptions rendered by each of the project team members throughout the project lifecycle. Optimisation of productivity have long been recognised as one of the toughest challenges faced in construction – frequently postulated by many as one of the most inefficient industries worldwide. Consequently, Building Information Modelling (BIM) has been introduced to ameliorate this shortfall, riding on its ability to better integrate the entire project team via a common platform, utilising Information and Communication Technology (ICT) as well as Internet of Things (IoT), or more specifically, through the ‘Cloud’ as is commonly coined. Nevertheless, its ability has yet to be fully utilised owing to the lack of awareness among construction stakeholders with regards to the array of benefits offered by this Cloud-based technology. In view of this, the authors aim to unmask the capabilities of Cloud-based BIM in enhancing project integration. To this end, a model has been conceptualised by reviewing extant literatures, with the concept of 4C’s (Communication, Coordination, Cooperation, Collaboration) adopted as its underlying theory. This conceptual model can be expected to impact the digitisation of project management, thereby optimising productivity and enhancing projects’ overall efficiency. This study also lays the groundwork for the better understanding and the future development of Cloud-based BIM and team integration in managing construction projects, both locally and internationally.


Abanda, F. H., Mzyece, D., Oti, A. H., & Manjia, M. B. (2018). A Study of the Potential of Cloud/Mobile BIM for the Management of Construction Projects. Applied System Innovation, 1(9), 1-19.
Al-Ashmori, Y. Y., Othman, I., Rahmawati, Y., Amran, Y. H. M., Sabah, S. H. A., Rafindadi, A. D., & Mikić, M. (2020). BIM benefits and its influence on the BIM implementation in Malaysia. Ain Shams Engineering Journal, 11(4), 1013-1019.
Alizadehsalehi, S., Hadavi, A., & Huang, J. C. (2020). From BIM to extended reality in AEC industry. Automation in Construction, 116, 103254.
Alreshidi, E., Mourshed, M., & Rezgui, Y. (2016). Cloud-Based BIM Governance Platform Requirements and Specifications: Software Engineering Approach Using BPMN and UML. Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, 30(4), 04015063.
Alreshidi, E., Mourshed, M., & Rezgui, Y. (2017). Factors for effective BIM governance. Journal of Building Engineering, 10, 89-101.
Ansha, M. K., Chen, X., Yang, H. X., Lu, L., & Lam, P. T. I. (2019). A Review and Outlook for Integrated BIM Application in Green Building Assessment. Sustainable Cities and Society, 48, 101576.
Anumba, C., & Ruikar, K. (2002). Electronic commerce in construction—trends and prospects. Automation in Construction, 11(3), 265-275.
Applied Software Technology. (2016, April 26). Cloud Based BIM Coordination: BIM 360 Glue for AE Design [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?reload=9&reload=9&reload=9&reload=9&reload=9&reload=9&v=_AILH9FCaxU&t=1404s
Badiru, A. B. (2008). Triple C Model of Project Management Communication, Cooperation, and Coordination. New York: CRC Press.
Badiru, A. B. (2019). Triple C Model. In Badiru, A. B. (Eds.), Project Management: Systems, Principles, and Applications (pp. 79-94). New York: Taylor & Francis Group.
Baiden, B. K., & Price, A. D. F. (2011). The Effect of Integration on Project Delivery Team Effectiveness. International Journal of Project Management, 29, 129-136
Baiden, B., Price, A., & Dainty, A. (2006). The extent of team integration within construction projects. International Journal of Project Management, 24(1), 13-23.
Cao, D., Li, H., Wang, G., & Zhang, W. (2016). Linking the Motivations and Practices of Design Organizations to Implement Building Information Modeling in Construction Projects: Empirical Study in China. Journal of Management in Engineering, 32(6), 04016013.
Cao, D., Li, H., Wang, G., Luo, X., & Tan, D. (2018). Relationship Network Structure and Organizational Competitiveness: Evidence from BIM Implementation Practices in the Construction Industry. Journal of Management in Engineering, 34(3), 04018005.
Castaner, X., & Oliveira, N. (2020). Collaboration, Coordination, and Cooperation Among Organizations: Establishing the Distinctive Meanings of These Terms Through a Systematic Literature Review. Journal of Management, 46(6), 965-1001.
Chang, A. S. & Shen, F. Y. (2009). Coordination Needs and Supply of Construction Projects. Engineering Management Journal, 21(4), 44-57.
Chen, H. M., Chang, K. C., & Lin, T. H. (2016). A cloud-based system framework for performing online viewing, storage, and analysis on big data of massive BIMs. Automation in Construction, 71, 34-48.
Chen, J. (2014). Cloud-BIM-based Collaborative Design and Construction of Construction Projects (Master thesis, Tsinghua University, Beijing). Retrieved from https://kns.cnki.net/kcms/detail/detail.aspx?dbcode=CMFD&dbname=CMFD201502&filename=1015038945.nh&v=coXjXDOZ1j%25mmd2FUE3oZb99NWjMQz99V5iMIVMSBNPZ2Da8q3OFjRtuTnOyR37DDV99b
Chong, H. Y., Wong, J. S., & Wang, X. (2014). An explanatory case study on cloud computing applications in the built environment. Automation in Construction, 44, 152-162.
Chu, M., Matthews, J., & Love, P. E. D. (2018). Integrating mobile Building Information Modelling and Augmented Reality systems: An experimental study. Automation in Construction, 85, 305-316.
Chuang, T. H., Lee, B. C., & Wu, I. C. (2011). Applying Cloud Computing Technology to BIM Visualization and Manipulation. 28th International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction (ISARC 2011). Published.
Dallasega, P., Revolti, A., Sauer, P. C., Schulze, F., & Rauch, E. (2020). BIM, Augmented and Virtual Reality empowering Lean Construction Management: a project simulation game. Procedia Manufacturing, 45, 49-54.
Das, T. K., & Teng, B. S. (1998). Between Trust and Control: Developing Confidence in Partner Cooperation in Alliances. Academy of Management Review, 23(3), 491-512.
Dossick, C. S., & Neff, G. (2011). Messy talk and clean technology: communication, problem-solving and collaboration using Building Information Modelling. Engineering Project Organization Journal, 1(2), 83-93.
Evbuomwan, N. F. O., & Anumba, C. J. (1998). An Integrated Framework for Concurrent Life-cycle Design and Construction. Advances in Engineering Software, 29(7-9), 587-597.
Fernandes, R. P. L. (2013). Advantages and Disadvantages of BIM Platforms on Construction Site (Master thesis, Faculdade De Engenharia Universidade Do Porto, Porto). Retrieved from https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/143397056.pdf
Fulford, R., & Standing, C. (2014). Construction industry productivity and the potential for collaborative practice. International Journal of Project Management, 32(2), 315-326.
Gulati, R., Wohlgezogen, F., & Zhelyazkov, P. (2012). The Two Facets of Collaboration: Cooperation and Coordination in Strategic Alliances. Academy of Management Annals, 6(1), 531-583.
Higgin, G, & Jessop, N. (1965). Communications in the Building Industry. London, Great Britain: Tavistock Publications Limited.
Hoetker, G., & Mellewigt, T. (2009). Choice and performance of governance mechanisms: matching alliance governance to asset type. Strategic Management Journal, 30(10), 1025-1044.
Hu, Z. Z., Zhang, X. Y., Wang, H. W., & Kassem, M. (2016). Improving interoperability between architectural and structural design models: An industry foundation classes-based approach with web-based tools. Automation in Construction, 66, 29-42.
Ibrahim, C. K. C., Costello, S. B., & Wilkinson, S. (2011). Key Practice Indicators of Team Integration in Construction Projects: A Review. 2nd International Conference on Construction and Project Management IPEDR. (pp. 230-235). IACSIT Press. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/266350366_Key_Practice_Indicators_of_Team_Integration_in_Construction_Projects_A_Review
Ibrahim, C. K. I. C., Costello, S. B., & Wilkinson, S. (2015). Key Indicators Influencing the Management of Team Integration in Construction Projects. International Journal of Management Projects in Business, 8, 300-323.
Kent, D. C., & Becerik-Gerber, B. (2010). Understanding Construction Industry Experience and Attitudes Toward Integrated Project Delivery. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 136(8), 815-725.
Lin, H., & Harding, J. (2007). A manufacturing system engineering ontology model on the semantic web for inter-enterprise collaboration. Computers in Industry, 58(5), 428-437.
Logesswari, S., Jayanthi, S., KalaiSelvi, D., Muthusundari, S., & Aswin, V. (2020). A study on cloud computing challenges and its mitigations. Materials Today: Proceedings.
Love, P., Gunasekaran, A., & Li, H. (1998). Concurrent engineering: a strategy for procuring construction projects. International Journal of Project Management, 16(6), 375-383.
Manderson, A.D., Jefferies, M.C., Brewer, G.J., 2017. An analysis of the intergration of building information modelling (BIM) in standard construction contracts. In: Peng, W., Haijiang, L., Xiangyu, W. (Eds.), Integrated Building Information Modelling (pp. 82-101). Bentham Science Publishers, Sharjah, UAE.
Martinez-Olvera, C., & Davizon-Castillo, Y. A. (2015). Modeling the Supply Chain Management Creation of Value – A Literature Review of Relevant Concepts. Applications of Contemporary Management Approaches in Supply Chains, 57-82.
Matthews, J., Love, P. E. D., Heinemann, S., Chandler, R., Rumsey, C., & Olatunj, O. (2015). Real time progress management: Re-engineering processes for cloud-based BIM in construction. Automation in Construction, 58, 38-47.
Matthews, J., Love, P. E. D., Mewburn, J., Stobaus, C., & Ramanayaka, C. (2017). Building information modelling in construction: insights from collaboration and change management perspectives. Production Planning & Control, 29(3), 202-216.
Mellado, F. & Lou, E. C. W. (2020). Building Information Modelling, Lean and Sustainability: An Integration Framework to Promote Performance Improvement in the Construction Industry. Sustainable Cities and Society, 61, 102355.
Miettinen, R., & Paavola, S. (2014). Beyond the BIM utopia: Approaches to the development and implementation of building information modeling. Automation in Construction, 43, 84-91.
Moore, D. R., & Dainty, A. R. J. (2001). Intra-team boundaries as inhibitors of performance improvement in UK design and build projects: a call for change. Construction Management and Economics, 19(6), 559-562.
Ochieng, E. G., & Price, A. D. (2009). Framework for Managing Multicultural Project Teams. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 16(6), 527-543.
Oraee, M., Hosseini, M. R., Edwards, D. J., Li, H., Papadonikolaki, E., & Cao, D. (2019). Collaboration barriers in BIM-based construction networks: A conceptual model. International Journal of Project Management, 37(6), 839-854.
Palaneeswaran, E. & Kumaraswamy, M. M. (2000). Contractor Selection for Design/Build Projects. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 126, 331-339.
Papadonikolaki, E., Vrijhoef, R., & Wamelink, H. (2016). The interdependences of BIM and supply chain partnering: empirical explorations. Architectural Engineering and Design Management, 12(6), 476-494.
Parkhe, A. (1993). Strategic Alliance Structuring: A Game Theoretic and Transaction Cost Examination of Interfirm Cooperation. Academy of Management Journal, 36(4), 794-829.
Parn, E. A., & Edwards, D. J. (2017). Conceptualising the FinDD API plug-in: A study of BIM-FM integration. Automation in Construction, 80, 11-21.
Petri, I., Beach, T., Rana, O. F., & Rezgui, Y. (2017). Coordinating multi-site construction projects using federated clouds. Automation in Construction, 83, 273-284
Rahman, M. M., & Kumaraswamy, M. M. (2008). Relational Contracting and Teambuilding: Assessing Potential Contractual and Noncontractual Incentives. Journal of Management in Engineering, 24(1), 48-63.
Razkenari, M., Fenner, A., Shojaei, A., Hakim, H., & Kibert, C. (2020). Perceptions of offsite construction in the United States: An investigation of current practices. Journal of Building Engineering, 29, 101138.
Redmond, A., Hore, A., Alshawi, M., & West, R. (2012). Exploring how information exchanges can be enhanced through Cloud BIM. Automation in Construction, 24, 175–183.
Saram, D. D. D., & Ahmed, S. M. (2001). Construction Coordination Activities: What Is Important and What Consumes Time. Journal of Management in Engineering, 17(4), 202-213.
Sobrero, M., & Schrader, S. (1998). Structuring Inter-firm Relationships: A Metaanalytic Approach. Organization Studies, 19(4), 585-615.
Suprapto, M., Bakker, H. L. M., Mooi, H. G., & Moree, W. (2015). Sorting out the essence of owner–contractor collaboration in capital project delivery. International Journal of Project Management, 33(3), 664-683.
Tang, S., Shelden, D. R., Eastman, C. M., Pishdad-Bozorgi, P., & Gao, X. (2019). A review of building information modeling (BIM) and the internet of things (IoT) devices integration: Present status and future trends. Automation in Construction, 101, 127-139.
Tay, K. H., Aminah, M. Y., Ismail, S., & Lee, F. W. (2012). A Conceptual Study of Key Barriers in Construction Project Coordination. Journal of Organizational Management Studies, 2012.
Tey, K.H., Chai, C. S., Olanrewaju, A. L., & Aminah, M. Y. (2018). CONCEPTUALISING 4CS IN CONSTRUCTION PROJECT TEAM INTEGRATION. Malaysian Construction Research Journal, 24(1), 83-96. Retrieved from https://www.cream.my/my/media/com_eshop/attachments/MCRJ%20Volume%2024%20No.1%202018.pdf
Vandecasteele, F., Merci, B., & Verstockt, S. (2017). Fireground location understanding by semantic linking of visual objects and building information models. Fire Safety Journal, 91, 1026-1034.
Walker, D. H., Davis, P. R., & Stevenson, A. (2017). Coping with uncertainty and ambiguity through team collaboration in infrastructure projects. International Journal of Project Management, 35(2), 180-190.
Wang, X., & Chong, H. Y. (2015). Setting new trends of integrated Building Information Modelling (BIM) for construction industry. Construction Innovation, 15(1), 2-6.
Wong, J. Wang, X. Y., L, H., Chan, G., & Li, H. J. (2014). A Review of Cloud-based BIM Technology in the Construction Sector, Journal of Information Technology in Construction, 19, 281-291. Retrieved from http://www.itcon.org/2014/16
Wu, G., Liu, C., Zhao, X., & Zuo, J. (2017). Investigating the relationship between communication-conflict interaction and project success among construction project teams. International Journal of Project Management, 35(8), 1466-1482.
Xue, X. L., Wang, Y. W., Shen, Q. P., & Yu, X. G. (2007). Coordination mechanisms for construction supply chain management in the Internet environment. International Journal of Project Management, 25(2), 150-157.
Zeng, M., & Chen, X. P. (2003). Achieving Cooperation in Multiparty Alliances: A Social Dilemma Approach to Partnership Management. Academy of Management Review, 28(4), 587-605.
Zhai, Y., Chen, K., Zhou, J. X., Cao, J., Lyu, Z., Jin, X., Shen, G. Q. P., Lu, W., & Huang, G. Q. (2019). An Internet of Things-enabled BIM platform for modular integrated construction: A case study in Hong Kong. Advanced Engineering Informatics, 42, 1-15.
Zhao, D., McCoy, A., Bulbul, T., Fiori, C., & Nikkhoo, P. (2015). Building Collaborative Construction Skills through BIM-integrated Learning Environment. International Journal of Construction Education and Research, 1-24.
How to Cite
JIANCHENG, Shan et al. Enhancing Project Integration Using Cloud-based Building Information Modelling: A Conceptual Model. International Journal of Advanced Research in Technology and Innovation, [S.l.], v. 3, n. 3, p. 12-25, sep. 2021. ISSN 2682-8324. Available at: <https://myjms.mohe.gov.my/index.php/ijarti/article/view/15044>. Date accessed: 24 oct. 2021.