Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM) to Identify Elements, Constructs, and Items for Designing And Developing Contents for Pre-Braille Skills Module

  • Alya Qasdina Ng Ai Lee
  • Kway Eng Hock


:  On the basis of the discrepancy model, a need analysis questionnaire was distributed to 92 randomly selected special education teachers in Malaysia to determine if they required a specialised module for early braille learning lessons. The results of the survey indicate that teachers strongly agree that they need a guided module with detailed instructions and video demonstrations in teaching early braille lessons. Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM) was chosen to determine the elements, constructs, and items required to design and develop the contents for Pre-Braille Skills Module. The Content Assessment of the Pre-Braille Skills Module questionnaire is used to collect data from seven authorised subject matter experts. The chosen elements, constructs, and items must satisfy three criteria of triangular fuzzy numbers: threshold value (d) ≤ 0.2, percentage of experts in agreement > 75%, and fuzzy score with a minimum value of 0.5. The data analysis was conducted using an Excel template, called FDM

2.0. As a result, Tactile Perception, Basic Braille Literacy, Early Braille Reading, and the most of the proposed constructs and items have been incorporated into the Pre-Braille Skills Module. In phase 2, items that did not meet the aforementioned criteria were amended and evaluated. This research has produced a prototype for the Pre-Braille Skills Module and Teaching Aid Kit. In the meanwhile, it offered teachers fresh perspective, especially those of us whose pupils were learning braille for the first time. Before proceeding on to more advanced braille lessons, these teachers must ensure that their pupils acquire tactile readiness.



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How to Cite
NG AI LEE, Alya Qasdina; ENG HOCK, Kway. Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM) to Identify Elements, Constructs, and Items for Designing And Developing Contents for Pre-Braille Skills Module. International Journal of Advanced Research in Education and Society, [S.l.], v. 5, n. 1, p. 117-126, mar. 2023. ISSN 2682-8138. Available at: <https://myjms.mohe.gov.my/index.php/ijares/article/view/21986>. Date accessed: 29 sep. 2023.