Trends and Considerations of Self-Efficacy of STEM Education in Malaysia

  • Rashidin Idris Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
  • Priyalatha Govindasamy Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
  • Suppiah Nachiappan Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris


Concerns about student engagement and participation in STEM education in school are growing as the trend shows that students are becoming less interested in choosing STEM areas in school. This is compounded by the trend of 72.1 percent of SPM students choosing not to continue their studies at the college and college level in 2022. As a result, the country's ability to provide expertise in science, technology, engineering and vocational training cannot be met and implemented according to market demand and the development of the Industrial Revolution 4.0. The purpose of this study is to investigate and evaluate the effect of self-efficacy and its relationship with STEM education in schools. The concept of this study incorporates the findings of previous studies focusing on self-efficacy and STEM education perspective. The conceptual framework of the study also discusses the self-efficacy model, which can enhance students' confidence in career development. This study can help participating researchers or agencies identify and assess self-efficacy factors as variables that can be used to strengthen and inform students' school engagement (STEM).


Academy of Science Malaysia. (2017). Science Outlook Report. Converging Towards Progressive Malaysia 2050. Research and Policy Recommendations Documents. Retrieved by 14 September 2022 at
Ahmad, Z. K. (2017). Assessing Urban and Rural Teachers’ Competencies in STEM Integrated Education in Malaysia. MATEC Web of Conferences 87. Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia: EDP Sciences.
Amirah, A. R., Mohd Jasmy, A, R., Siti Adilah, M. A., Noraina Ayu, R., & Norkamaliah, D. (2018). STEM Applications in Teaching and Facilitation in Rural Schools: Opportunities and Challenges. International Conference on Education and Regional Development (ICERD 3RD), “Curiculum for Millenial Generation in Disruptive Era and 4.0 Industrial Revolutions.” Bandung, Indonesia.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thoughts and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived Self-Efficacy In Cognitive Development and Functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28(2), 117-148.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: W. H. Freeman and Company.
Bandura, A. (2000). Self-efficacy: Foundation of Agency. Control of Human Behavior Mental Processes and Consciouness, 17-33. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Betz, N. E., & Hackett, G. (1981). The relationship of career-related self-efficacy expectations to perceived career options in college women and men. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 28(5), 399–410. 0167.28.5.399.
Betz, N. E., & Hackett, G. (1986). Applications of self-efficacy theory to understanding career choice behavior. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 4, 279-289.
Black, S. E., Muller, C., Spitz-Oener, A., He, Z., Hung, K., & Warren, J., R. (2021). The importance of STEM: High school knowledge, skills and occupations in an era of growing inequality, Research Policy, 50 (7), ISSN 0048-7333.
Choi, B. Y., Park, H., Yang, E., Lee, S. K., Lee, Y., & Lee, S. M. (2011). Understanding Career Decision Self-Efficacy: A Meta-Analytic Approach. Journal of Career Development, 39(5), 443–460.
Clyton D & Moses K. (2017). Implementation of STEM Curriculum in Rural Secondary Schools in Zimbabwe: Limits and Possibilities. Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies, 8(1), 11-15.
Department of Statistics Malaysia (DOSM). (2022). Survey: 72.1% of M’sians not keen on higher education after SPM, want to work as influencers or in gig economy instead. Retrived by 12 September 2022 at
Falco, L. D., & Summers, J. J. (2019). Improving Career Decision Self-Efficacy and STEM Self-Efficacy in high school girls: Evaluation of an intervention. Journal of Career Development, 46(1), 62-76. DOI: 10.1177/0894845317721651.
Fazilah, R., Umi Kalthom, A., & Ahmad Fauzi, M. A. (2020). STEM Education in Malaysia towards Developing a Human Capital through Motivating Science Subject. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 19(5).
Gushue, G. V., Clarke, C. P., Pantzer, K. M., & Scanlan, K. R. (2006). Self-efficacy, perceptions of barriers, vocational identity, and the career exploration behavior of Latino high school students. The Career Development Quarterly, 54, 307–317.
Hartmann, F. G., & Ertl, B. (2021). Big five personality trait differences between students from different majors aspiring to the teaching profession. Current Psychology, 1-17,
Kennedy, T., & Sundberg, C. W. (2020). Science education in theory and practice: An introductory guide to learning theory. Springer International Publishing, 479-496.
Loh, S. W., Wan Marzuki, W. J., Ahmad Fauzi, M. A., Tajularipin, S., & Borhanudin, A. (2019). Relationship between Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy, Career Optimism and Career Decision-Making Difficulties among students in private secondary school. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity, and Change, 10(1), 221-244.
Ministry of Education. (2016). Guide to the Implementation of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) in teaching and learning. Curriculum Development Division Putrajaya. ISBN: 976-967-420-093-0.
Nauta, M. M., & Kahn, J. H. (2007). Identity Status, Consistency and Differentiation of Interests, and Career Decision Self-Efficacy. Journal of Career Assessment, 15(1), 55–65.
Nor Syazila, A. R., Wan Marzuki, W., & Nurazidawati, M. A. (2021). Career maturity and career decision-making self-efficacy as predictors of career adaptability among students in foundation program, Universiti Putra Malaysia. Asian Journal of University Education, 17(4), 464-477.
Nur Hidayah, A., & Mastura, T. S. (2018). Project-Based Learning Methods to Improve the Level of Critical Thinking Skills of Form 4 Students on the Dynamic Ecosystem Topic. Proceedings of the 2018 Public University Education Dean's Council National Seminar. ISBN 978-967-2231-03-5.
Ogotu, J. P., Odera, P., & Maragia, S. N. (2017). Self-Efficacy as a Predictor of Career Decision Making among Secondary Students in Busia County, Kenya. Journal of Education and Practice, 8(11), 20-29. ISSN 2222-1735.
Ong, E. T., Govindasamy, D., Singh, C. K., et al., (2021). The 5E inquiry learning model: Its effect on the learning of electricity among Malaysian students. Cakrawala Pendidikan, 40, (1). doi:10.21831/cp.v40i1.33415
Taylor, K. M., & Betz, N. E. (1983). Applications of self-efficacy theory to the understanding and treatment of career indecision. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 22(1), 63–81. 8791(83)90006-4.
Wilma, N., & Mohd Jasmy, A. R. (2015). ICT Literacy Skills among Iban students in rural Sibu, Sarawak: Proceeding: 7th International Seminar on Regional Education, November 5-7, 2015, Educational Community and Cultural Diversity, (1), 606-612.
Zulyna, Z., & Faridah, M. K. (2021). The Relationship between Self-Efficacy and Motivation on the Academic Achievement of Female Students Majoring in STEM. Malaysian Journal of Social Science and Humanities, 6(3), 180-190. .716.
Zhongming, Z., Linong, L., Xiaona, Y., Wangqiang, Z., & Wei, L. (2016). Ministry of Science, Technology, and Innovation (MOSTI), Malaysia [06-02-10-SF0195]. Retrieved from 19 September 2022. menteri/
How to Cite
IDRIS, Rashidin; GOVINDASAMY, Priyalatha; NACHIAPPAN, Suppiah. Trends and Considerations of Self-Efficacy of STEM Education in Malaysia. International Journal of Advanced Research in Education and Society, [S.l.], v. 5, n. 1, p. 208-215, mar. 2023. ISSN 2682-8138. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 29 sep. 2023.