Individual Innovativeness, Emotional Intelligence and Self-Efficacy Towards Online Learning Readiness

  • Nor Aniza Ahmad
  • Zulfalilla Salim

Abstract

In Malaysia, the Ministry of Higher Education (MoHE) announced that all public and private universities need to conduct all classes through online learning to ensure the continuity of education. Online learning is a form of distance learning that takes place partially or entirely over the internet. Online learning can fulfil students’ academics by providing quality education, regardless of location and time, if internet access is available. Measuring students’ readiness in online learning should also be of great concern to universities and has yet to be investigated, particularly for Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) students. The student's readiness determines how his or her behaviour changes. In this study, the researcher intends to find out the level of individual innovativeness, emotional intelligence, self-efficacy and online learning readiness among students at Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM). The research design is a descriptive correlational study, as well as the data collection method is a quantitative approach. This study comprised 356 postgraduate students from the Faculty of Educational Studies and participants were asked to fill up the questionnaires. Descriptive and inferential statistics are used to analyse the research data. Findings revealed that UPM students have a moderate level of individual innovativeness, emotional intelligence and online learning readiness, however, a high level in self-efficacy. This study has contributed to the new dimension in students’ online learning readiness especially in the education field and the institution that is related to it. More strategies may be developed to ensure students are able to learn online effectively by identifying their level of individual innovativeness, emotional intelligence, self-efficacy, and online learning readiness.

References

Adnan, M., & Anwar, K., (2020). Online learning amid the COVID-19 pandemic: Students' perspectives. Journal of Pedagogical Sociology and Psychology Volume 2, Issue 1,2020 http://www.doi.org/10.33902/JPSP. 2020261309.
Alenezi, A. M., (2020). The Relationship of Students’ Emotional Intelligence and the Level of their Readiness for Online Education: A Contextual Study on the Example of University Training in Saudi Arabia. The Education and Science Journal. Vol. 22, No.4 2020.
Arul, A. S & Deepa, T., (2013). Emotional Intelligence and Academic Achievement of High School Students in Kanyakumari District. IJPSS. ISSN:2249-5894. Volume 3, Issue 2.
Aydin, C. H. & Tasci, D. (2005). Measuring Readiness for e-Learning: Reflections from an Emerging Country. Educational Technology & Society, 8 (4), 244-257.
Bandura, A. (1977), “Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change”, Psychological. Review, Vol. 84 No. 2, pp. 191-215.
Bandura, A. (1997), Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control, Worth Publishers, New York, NY.
Bar-On, R. (2006). The Bar-On model of emotional-social intelligence (ESI). Psicothema, 18, supl., 13-25. Model overview retrieved from the Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence in Organizations website. http://www.eiconsortium.org/measures/eqi.html.
Bar-On, R. (1997). The emotional quotient inventory (EQ-i): Technical manual. Toronto Multi Health Systems.
Bubou, G. M., & Job, G. C., (2020). Individual innovativeness, self-efficacy and e-learning readiness of students of Yenagoa study centre, National Open University of Nigeria. Gordon Monday Bubou and Gabriel Chibuzor Job. Published in the Journal of Research in Innovative Teaching & Learning.
Buzdar, M. A., Ali, A., & Tariq, R. U. (2016). Emotional Intelligence as a Determinant of Readiness for Online Learning. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning. Volume 17, Number 1.
Berenson, R., Boyles, G. & Weaver, A., (2008). Emotional Intelligence as a Predictor for Success in Online Learning. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. Volume 9, Number 2.
Cigdem, H. & Yildirim, O. G. (2014). Effects of Students’ Characteristics On Online Learning Readiness: A Vocational College Example. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education-Tojde July 2014 Issn 1302-6488 Volume: 15 Number: 3 Article 8
Celik, K. (2013). The Relationship between Individual Innovativeness and Self-Efficacy Levels of Student Teachers. International Journal of Scientific Research in Education, 6(1), 56-67.
Cochran, W. G. (1977). Sampling techniques (3rd ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Chung, E., Noor, N. M., & Vloreen Nity Mathew. (2020). Are You Ready? An Assessment of Online Learning Readiness among University Students. International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development, 9(1), 301–317.
Chung, E., Subramaniam, G., & Dass, L.C., (2020). Online Learning Readiness Among University Students in Malaysia Amidst Covid-19. Asian Journal of University Education (AJUE) Volume 16, Number 2, July 2020.
Coklar, A. (2012), “Individual innovativeness levels of educational administrators”, Digital Education Review, Vol. 22, pp. 100-110.
Dhull, I., & Sakshi, M. S., (2017). Online Learning. E-ISSN No: 2454-9916 | Volume: 3 | Issue: 8 | Aug 2017.
Duncan, T., & Mckeachie, W., J., (1993). liability and predictive Validity of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). Article in Educational and Psychological Measurement September 1993. DOI: 10.1177/0013164493053003024
Elnakeeb & Khalifa, S. M. A. (2016). Relationship Between Online Learning Readiness and Social Interaction Anxiety among Nursing Students in Alexandria University
World Journal of Nursing Sciences 2 (3): 140-152, 2016ISSN 2222-1352 © IDOSI Publications, 2016DOI: 10.5829/idosi.wjns.2016.140.152
Engin, M., (2017). Analysis of Students' Online Learning Readiness Based on Their Emotional Intelligence Level Universal Journal of Educational Research 5(12A): 32-40, 2017 http://www.hrpub.org DOI: 10.13189/ujer.2017.051306.
Ertug, N., & Kaya, H. (2017). Investigating the Individual Innovativeness Profiles and Barriers to Innovativeness in Undergraduate Nursing Students. Volume 14 (3): 192-197.
Gayan, D. A. (2020). Effects of Innovation and Perceived Ease of Use on Adoption of Online Learning. University of Kelaniya. Conference Paper. April 2020.
Goleman, D. (1998). Working with Emotional Intelligence. Bantam Books: New York, USA.
Goleman, D. (2009). Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ. London Bloomsbury Publishing.
Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.
Gurkan, G.C. and Demiralay, T. (2016), “Individual innovativeness levels of lead users and non-lead users: the case study of surgeons in Turkey”, International Journal of Business and Social Science, Vol. 7 No. 7, pp. 114-121.
Herguner, S. (2017). Prospective EFL Teachers’ Emotional Intelligence and Tablet Computer Use and Literacy. TOJET: The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology – October 2017, volume 16 issue 4.
Hung, M. L., Chou, C., Chen, C. H., Own. Z. Y. (2010). Learner readiness for online learning: Scale development and student perception. Computers & Education, 55(2010), 1080-1090. Doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2020.05.004.
Imel, S. (2003). Effects of emotions on learning adult, career and career technical education. ERIC Document No.: ED473767. ERIC clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education.
Ituma, A. (2011). An evaluation of students’ perception and engagement with e-learning components in a campus based university. Active learning in Higher Education, 12 (1), 57-68. https://doi.org.10.1177/1469787410387722.
Konting, M. M., (2009). Research Methodology. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.
Landrum, B. (2020). Examining students’ confidence to learn online, self-regulation skills and perceptions of satisfaction and usefulness of online classes. Online Learning, 24(3), 128- 146. https://doi.org/10.24059/olj.v24i3.2066
Lee, J. W., & Mendlinger, S., (2011). Perceived Self-Efficacy and Its Effect on Online Learning Acceptance and Student Satisfaction Journal of Service Science and Management, 2011, 4, 243-252 doi:10.4236/jssm.2011.43029.
Liu J. C. & Kaye, E. R. (2016). Preparing Online Learning Readiness with Learner-Content Interaction. In book: Blended Learning: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications. DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-0783-3.ch029
Martins, C. (2018), “The individual innovativeness theory: a framework to investigate teachers’ views on technology”, ICICTE 2018 Proceedings, pp. 360-370.
Mastor, H., Salleh, H., & Ibrahim, K. (2021). Students Readiness for Online Learning: Case Study on Commerce Department’s Students Politeknik Kuching Sarawak. International Journal of Modern Trends in Social Sciences (IJMTSS). Volume 4 Issue 15.
Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2008). Emotional intelligence: New ability or eclectic traits? American Psychologist, 63, 503-517.
McCarthy, K. (2020). The global impact of coronavirus on education. Retrieved from ABC News:https://abcnews.go.com/International/global-impact coronaviruseducation/story.
Neophytou, L., (2013). Emotional Intelligence and educational reform. Educational Review, 65, 140-154.
Picciano, A. G. (2017). Theories and frameworks for online education: Seeking an integrated model. Online Learning, 21(3), 166-190. doi: 10.24059/olj. v21i3.1225.
Rogers, E. (1995), Diffusion of Innovations, The Free Press, New York, NY.
Salaberry, M. R. (2000). Pedagogical design of computer mediated communication tasks: learning objectives and technological capabilities. Modern Language Journal, 84(1), 28–37.
Salovey, P., Mayer, J. (1990), Emotional Intelligence, Baywook Publishing Co.
Sari, T., & Nayir, F. (2020). Challenges in Distance Education During the (Covid-19) Pandemic Period. Qualitative Research in Education, 9(3), 328-360. doi:10.17583/qre.2020.5872
Shea, P. & Bidjerano, T. (2010), “Learning presence: towards a theory of self-efficacy, self-regulation, and the development of a communities of inquiry in online and blended learning environments”, Computers & Education, Vol. 55 No. 4, pp. 1721-1731.
Smith, P. J., Murphy, K. L., & Mahoney, S. E. (2003). Towards identifying factors underlying readiness for online learning: An exploratory study. Distance Education, 24(1), 57-67.
Sulaiman, W. S. W., & Noor, M. Z. M (2015). Examining Psychometric Properties of the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence. International conference on Social & Humanities. Special Issue 2 (2015) 081-090, ISSN: 1853-884x.
Surme, Y., Sezer, Y., Ceyhan, O., Korkut, S., & Caner, N. (2019). Do Individual Characteristics Affect Readiness Online Learning? Journal of High Education and Science. Volume 9. Page 342-348.
Tinto, V. (1975). Dropout from higher education: A theoretical synthesis of recent research. Review of Educational Research, 45(1), 89–125.
Viscu, L. I., Cornean, C. E., Colojara, R., & Cadariu, I. E. (2017). The role of emotional intelligence in online learning. Conference: The International Symposium of Research and Applications in Psychology, 24th edition, with the theme “Cognitive characteristics of transdisciplinarity. Applications in psychology and psychotherapy”, 24-26 of March 2017.
Wains, S. I., & Mahmood, W. (2008). Integrating m-learning with e-learning. In Proceedings of the 9th ACM SIGITE Conference on Information Technology Education (pp. 31-38).
Yi, M.Y., Fiedler, K.D. and Park, J.S. (2006), “Understanding the role of individual innovativeness in the acceptance of IT-based innovations: comparative analyses of models and measures”, Decision Sciences, Vol. 7 No. 3, pp. 393-426.
Yokoyama, S. (2019), “Academic self-efficacy and academic performance in online learning: a mini review”, Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 9, doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02794, Article 2794.
Yu, T., & Richardson, J. C. (2015). An Exploratory Factor Analysis and Reliability Analysis of the Student Online Learning Readiness (SOLR) Instrument. Online Learning, 19(5), 120– 141. http://dx.doi.org/10.24059/olj.v19i5.593
Published
2021-12-31
How to Cite
AHMAD, Nor Aniza; SALIM, Zulfalilla. Individual Innovativeness, Emotional Intelligence and Self-Efficacy Towards Online Learning Readiness. International Journal of Advanced Research in Education and Society, [S.l.], v. 3, n. 4, p. 109-122, dec. 2021. ISSN 2682-8138. Available at: <https://myjms.mohe.gov.my/index.php/ijares/article/view/16667>. Date accessed: 21 may 2022.
Section
Articles