The Impact of Google Classroom-assisted Collaborative Learning Approach on Economics Students' Attitudes
The education recovery plan in Malaysia was opened in stages according to four phases. The Government launched the State Digital Network plan (Jalinan Digital Negara, JENDELA) 2020-2022 by focusing on learning needs at home as one of the national agendas. This situation presented a challenge for students, especially those who would face major examinations such as the Malaysian High School Certificate (Sijil Tinggi Pelajaran Malaysia, STPM) because the usual learning approach was face-to-face. The Google Classroom application was one of the preferred learning management systems in Malaysia. The application offered easy communication and discussion, making it easier for students to carry out collaborative learning. However, to what extent does the collaborative learning approach assisted by Google Classroom impact the attitudes of economics students. This study aims to test the impact of Google Classroom-assisted collaborative learning on the attitudes of economics students. This quasi-experimental study uses pre-test and post-test instruments to collect data on 207 Form Six economics students through cluster random sampling. Descriptive (frequency, percentage, and mean) and inferential (ANOVA) analyses were performed after data were collected and coded. The results showed that the experimental group which was exposed to the collaborative approach (GCDK) showed a better attitude towards economics learning than the group of students who were not exposed to the collaborative approach (GCTK and KPK). It is recommended for future researchers to further expand the study in various locations that offered economics courses at the pre-university level. The results impacted the teachers, administrators, and policymakers to preparedly face the learning environment after Covid-19 in the future.
Adams, K. (2020). Research to resource: Developing a sense of community in online learning environments. Update: Applications of Research in Music Education. https://doi.org/10.1177/8755123320943985
Adedoyin, O. B., & Soykan, E. (2020). Covid-19 pandemic and online learning: The challenges and opportunities. Interactive Learning Environments, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2020.1813180
Ädel, A. (2011). Rapport building in student group work. Journal of Pragmatics, 43(12), 2932–2947. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2011.05.007
Adu, E. O., & Galloway, G. (2015). The effects of cooperative learning on students’ economics achievement and attitude towards economics. Journal of Economics, 6(1), 30–36. https://doi.org/10.1080/09765239.2015.11885014)
Ahmad, A. K., Norhunaini, M. S., Liyana, T., Muna, S., & Syahrul N. J. (2020). Transitioning to online learning during COVID-19 pandemic: Case study of a pre-university centre in Malaysia. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications(IJACSA), 11(6). http://dx.doi.org/10.14569/IJACSA.2020.0110628
Akay, D. E., & Gumusoglu, E. K. (2020). The impact of learning management systems on students’ achievement in language exams. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 21(4), 206–222. https://doi.org/10.17718/TOJDE.80341
Albashtawi, A. H., & Al Bataineh, K. B. (2020). The effectiveness of Google Classroom among EFL students in Jordan: An innovative teaching and learning online platform. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET), 15(11), 78. https://doi.org/10.3991/IJET.V15I11.12865
Alghamdi, O.M. (2018). Saudi college students’ attitudes towards online collaborative learning [Doctor of Philosophy]. University of Kansas.
Al-Rawahi, L.S., & Al-Mekhlafi, A.M. (2015). The effect of online collaborative project-based learning on English as a foreign language learners' language performance and attitudes. Learning and Teaching in Higher Education: Gulf Perspectives, 12(2). https://doi-org.ezpustaka2.upsi.edu.my/10.18538/lthe.v12.n2.186
Alshorman, B. A., & Bawaneh, A. K. (2018). Attitudes of faculty members and students towards the use of the learning management system in teaching and learning. TOJET: The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 17(3).
Amedu, O.I., & Gudi, K.C. (2017). Attitude of students towards cooperative learning in some selected secondary schools in Nasarawa State. Journal of Education and Practice, 8(10).
Ananthan, A.C.A. (2016). Hubungan antara minat, sikap, motivasi dan media pengajaran terhadap pencapaian mata pelajaran ekonomi dalam kalangan pelajar-pelajar tingkatan enam di daerah Kluang [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris.
Ansari, J. A. N., & Khan, N. A. (2020). Exploring the role of social media in collaborative learning the new domain of learning. Smart Learning Environments, 7(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40561-020-00118-7
Anusia, M. (2015). Penentu kelemahan pelajar dalam subjek ekonomi asas di daerah Bentong, Pahang [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris.
Aryadoust, V., Mehran, P., & Alizadeh, M. (2016). Validating a computer-assisted language learning attitude instrument used in Iranian EFL context: An evidence-based approach. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29(3), 561–595.
Ashrafi, A., Zareravasan, A., Savoji, S. R., & Amani, M. (2020). Exploring factors influencing students’ continuance intention to use the learning management system (LMS): A multi-perspective framework. Interactive Learning Environments. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2020.1734028
Ayers, C. A. (2019). Teaching students to “think like economists” as democratic citizenship preparation. The Journal of Social Studies Research. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jssr.2018.10.002
Azieyana, A., & Andin, C. (2018). Penggunaan strategi pembelajaran koperatif untuk meningkatkan tahap kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi pelajar. Jurnal Pendidikan Malaysia, 43(1), 1-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.17576/JPEN-2018-43.01-01
Baharin, Y., & Yusop, F. D. (2011). Pembelajaran kolaboratif menggunakan blog dalam pembelajaran mata pelajaran ekonomi asas. Jurnal Pendidikan, 31(1).
Basarmak, U., & Mahiroglu, A. (2016). The effect of online learning environment based on caricature animation used in science and technology course on the success and attitude of the student for humor. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 15(4).
Becker, W. E., & Watts, M. (2001). Teaching economics at the start of the 21st century: Still chalk and talk. American Economic Review, 91(2), 446–451. https://doi.org/10.1257/aer.91.2.446
Brodsky, J. E., Lodhi, A. K., Powers, K. L., Blumberg, F. C., & Brooks, P. J. (2021). “It’s just everywhere now”: Middle‐school and college students’ mental models of the Internet. Human Behavior and Emerging Technologies, 3(4), 495–511. https://doi.org/10.1002/hbe2.281
Calimeris, L. (2018). Effects of flipping the principles of microeconomics class: Does scheduling matter? International Review of Economics Education. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iree.2018.01.002
Chatterjee, R., & Correia, A.-P. (2019). Online students’ attitudes toward collaborative learning and sense of community. American Journal of Distance Education, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1080/08923647.2020.1703479
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Erlbaum.
Danchikov E.A., Prodanova N.A.,Kovalenko Y.N., & Bondarenko T.G. (2021). Using different approaches to organizing distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic: Opportunities and disadvantages. Linguistics and Culture Review, 5, 587 – 595.
Davadas, S. D., & Lay, Y. F. (2017). Factors affecting students’ attitude toward mathematics: A structural equation modeling approach. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education. https://doi.org/10.12973/ejmste/80356
Davadas, S. D., & Lay, Y. F. (2020). Contributing factors of secondary students’ attitude towards Mathematics. European Journal of Educational Research, 9(2), 489-498. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.9.2.489
Davis, F. D. (1989). Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Quarterly, 13(3), 319. https://doi.org/10.2307/249008
Department of Statistics Malaysia. (2021). Laporan penyiasatan penggunaan dan capaian ICT individu dan isi rumah, Malaysia 2020. https://www.dosm.gov.my/v1/uploads/files/5_Gallery/2_Media/4_Stats%40media/4-Press_Statement/2021/20210412-Kenyataan_Media-Penggunaan_dan_Capaian_ICT_oleh_Individu_dan_Isi_Rumah_2020.pdf
Dı´ez-Palomar, J., Garcı´a-Carrio´n, R., Hargreaves, L., Vieites, M. (2020). Transforming students’ attitudes towards learning through the use of successful educational actions. PLoS ONE, 15(10). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0240292
Dontre, A. J. (2020). The influence of technology on academic distraction: A review. Human Behavior and Emerging Technologies, 3(3), 379–390. https://doi.org/10.1002/hbe2.229
Dvořáková K., Emmer J., Janktová R., Klementová K. (2021). From F2F to ERT: University students’ perception of remote learning during the first COVID-19 lockdown. Journal on Efficiency and Responsibility in Education and Science, 14(2), 89-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.7160/eriesj.2021.140203
Farah, M.A.H. (2015). Online collaborative writing: Students’ perception. Journal of Creative Practices in Language Learning and Teaching (CPLT), 3(2).
Ford, E. J., & Leclerc, D. C. (2000). A constructivist approach to college-level economic education. Review of Radical Political Economics, 32(3), 482–494. https://doi.org/10.1177/048661340003200313
Glasman, L. R., & Albarracín, D. (2006). Forming attitudes that predict future behavior: A meta-analysis of the attitude-behavior relation. Psychological Bulletin, 132(5), 778–822. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.132.5.778
Google Trend. (2021). Google Classroom. ttps://trends.google.com/trends/explore?q=Google%20classroom&geo=MY
Grimes, P. W., & Nelson, P. S. (1998). The social issues pedagogy vs. the traditional principles of economics: An empirical examination. The American Economist, 42(1), 56–64.
Hopkins, K.D. (1998). Education and psychological measurement and evaluation. Boston: Allyn Bacon.
Iftakhar, S. (2016). Google Classroom: What works and how? Journal of Education and Social Science, 3, 12–18.
Jalani, N. H., & Sern, L. C. (2015). The example-problem-based learning model: Applying cognitive load theory. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 195, 872–880. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.06.366
Kabilan, M. K., Ahmad, N., & Abidin, M. J. Z. (2010). Facebook: An online environment for learning of English in institutions of higher education? The Internet and Higher Education, 13(4), 179–187. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2010.07.003 (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2010.07.003)
Karstensson, L., & Vedder, R. K. (1974). A note on attitude as a factor in learning economics. The Journal of Economic Education, 5(2), 109–111. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220485.1974.10845393
Kasiyah, Sadita, L., Santoso, H. B., Soeradijono, S. H., & Suhartanto, H. (2017). Assessing students’ e-learning competencies in online learning environment. 2017 International Conference on Advanced Computer Science and Information Systems (ICACSIS). https://doi.org/10.1109/ICACSIS.2017.8355079
Khalil, H., & Enber, M. (2017). Using electronic communication tools in online group activities to develop collaborative learning skills. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 5(4), 529-536. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2017.050401
Khalil, Z. M. (2018). EFL students ’ perceptions towards using Google Docs and Google Classroom as online collaborative tools in learning grammar. Applied Linguistics Research Journal, 2(2), 33–48. https://doi.org/10.14744/alrj.2018.47955
Kuo, Y., Belland, B. R., & Kuo, Y. (2017). Learning through blogging: Students’ perspectives in collaborative blog-enhanced learning communities. International Forum of Educational Technology & Society, 20(2), 37–50.
Kuuk, O., & Arslan, A. (2020). Coorperative learning in developing positive attitudes and reflective thinking skills of high school students' in english course. International Journal of Psycho-Educational Sciences, 9(1).
Laging, A., & Voßkamp, R. (2016). Determinants of maths performance of first-year business administration and economics students. International Journal of Research in Undergraduate Mathematics Education, 3(1), 108–142. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40753-016-0048-8
Lawson, L. D. (1994). The role of attitude in learning economics: Race and gender differences. Journal of Economics and Finance, 18(2), 139–151. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02920518
Lee, J., & Osman, G. (2021). Students’ experiences and perceptions of online collaborative learning in higher education of Korea and The UAE. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education-TOJDE, 22.
Lee, W. Y. (2013). Investigating students’ learning approaches, perceptions of online dis cussions, and students’ online and academic performance. Computers & Education, 68, 345–352.
Li, J., Zhang, M., Li, Y., Huang, F., & Shao, W. (2021). Predicting students’ attitudes toward collaboration: Evidence from structural squation model trees and forests. Frontiers in Psychology. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.604291
Lopes, J. C., Graça, J. C., & Correia, R. G. (2015). Effects of Economic Education on Social and Political Values, Beliefs and Attitudes: Results from a Survey in Portugal. Procedia Economics and Finance, 30, 468–475. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2212-5671(15)01314-3
Magen-Nagar, N., & Shonfeld, M. (2017). The impact of an online collaborative learning program on students’ attitude towards technology. Interactive Learning Environments, 26(5), 621–637. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2017.1376336
Maharsi, I. (2018). Developing EFL students’ learning reflection and self-regulated learning through Google Classroom. Proceedings of the 2018 The 3rd International Conference on Information and Education Innovations-ICIEI 2018. https://doi.org/10.1145/3234825.3234841
Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission (MCMC). (2020). JENDELA Fourth quartely report. https://myjendela.my/
Md Yunus, M., Ang, W.S., Hashim, H. (2021). Factors affecting teaching english as a second language (TESL) postgraduate students’ behavioural intention for online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. Sustainability, 13. https://doi.org/ 10.3390/su13063524
Ministry of Education Malaysia, (2020). Statistik bilangan sekolah, Murid & Guru. https://www.moe.gov.my/en/statistik-menu/statistik-bilangan-sekolah-murid-guru
Mulyani, Fidyati, Suryani, Suri, M., & Halimatussakdiah. (2021). University students’ perceptions through e-learning implementation during COVID-19 pandemic: Positive or negative features dominate? Studies in English Language and Education, 8(1), 197-211.
Murdhiono, W.R., Fadlilah, S., & Vidayanti, V. (2021). The effect of online learning systems on academic stress during the Covid-19 pandemic among students in Indonesia. International Medical Journal, 28(4), 445-448.
Murillo-Zamorano, L. R., López Sánchez, J. Á., & Godoy-Caballero, A. L. (2019). How the flipped classroom affects knowledge, skills, and engagement in higher education: Effects on students’ satisfaction. Computers & Education, 103608. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2019.103608
Mushtaque, I., Rizwan, M., Dasti, R. K., Ahmad, R., & Mushtaq, M. (2021). Students’ attitude and impact of online learning; Role of teachers and classmate support during the Covid‐19 crisis. Performance Improvement, 60(5), 20–27. https://doi.org/10.1002/pfi.21982
Muttaqin & Hasan, (2020). Utilization of e-learning-based ICT learning using the Google Classroom application during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Educational Research and Evaluation, 4(4), 373-380.
Nam, C. W. (2016). The effects of digital storytelling on student achievement, social presence, and attitude in online collaborative learning environments. Interactive Learning Environments, 25(3), 412–427. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2015.1135173
National Recovery Council. (2021). Sektor pendidikan. https://pelanpemulihannegara.gov.my/johor/sector/education.html
Ngussa, B. M., Fitriyah, F. K., & Diningrat, S. W. M. (2021). Correlation between Facebook use, mental health and learning engagement: A case of universities in Surabaya City, Indonesia. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 22, 229–245. https://doi.org/10.17718/TOJDE.849912
Nilavu, R. (2019). Enhancing writing skills in engineering students: An ICT based multimodal approach through Google Classroom. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 8(12).
Norshahida, M.S. (2015). Hubungan sikap pelajar terhadap pencapaian mata pelajaran ekonomi asas [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris.
O’Neill, P. B. (2001). Essay versus multiple choice exams; An experiment in the principles of macroeconomics course. The American Economist, 45(1), 62–70. https://doi.org/10.1177/056943450104500106
Olson, E. D., & Brown, E. (2018). Perceptions of students in an event management program of annotation systems and their influence on student learning. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Education, 30(2), 118–126. https://doi.org/10.1080/10963758.2018.1437351
Ongeri, J. D. (2017). Instruction of economics at higher education: A literature review of the unchanging method of “talk and chalk.” The International Journal of Management Education, 15(2), 30–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijme.2017.03.001
Quigley, C. F., & Herro, D. (2016). Finding the joy in the unknown: Implementation of STEAM teaching practices in middle school science and math classrooms. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 25, 410–426. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-016-9602-z
Ramlee, I., Marinah,A., Seow, Y.P., & Muhammad Ridhuan, B.A. (2020). Active learning in economic subject: A case study at secondary school. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 19 (10), 19-31. https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.19.10.2
Rao, M.E.,Rao, D.M. (2021). The mental health of high school students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Frontiers in Education Open Access, 6.
Sahin, M. C. (2009). Instructional design principles for 21st century learning skills. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1(1), 1464–1468. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2009.01.258
Salemi, M. K. (2002). An illustrated case for active learning. Southern Economic Journal, 68(3), 721. https://doi.org/10.2307/1061730
Shimuzu, I., Matsuyama, Y., Duvivier, R., & Vleuten, C.V.D. (2021). Contextual attributes to promote positive social interdependence in problem-based learning: A focus group study. BMC Medical Education, 21.
Sim, S., Sim, H., & Quah, C. (2021). Online learning: A post Covid-19 alternative pedagogy for university students. Asian Journal Of University Education, 16(4), 137-151.
Singh, C.K.S., Singh T.S.M., Abdullah, N.Y., Moneyam, S., Ismail, M.R., Eng Tek, O., Karupayah, T., Chenderan, K., Singh,M.K.R., & Singh, J.K.S. (2020). Rethinking english language teaching through telegram, whatsapp, google classroom and zoom. Systematic Reviews in Pharmacy, 11(11), 45-54. https://doi.org/10.31838/srp.2020.11.9
Skagerlund, K., Lind, T., Strömbäck, C., Tinghög, G., & Västfjäll, D. (2018). Financial literacy and the role of numeracy–How individuals’ attitude and affinity with numbers influence financial literacy. Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics, 74, 18–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socec.2018.03.004
Smith, E.C. (2021). Consequences of school closure on access to education: Lessons from the 2013–2016 Ebola pandemic. International Review of Education, 67, 53–78. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11159-021-09900-2
Ssemugenyi, F., & Seje, T.N. (2021). A decade of unprecedented e-learning adoption and adaptation: Covid-19 revolutionizes teaching and learning at Papua New Guinea University of Technology (PNGUoT). Cogent Education, 8(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2021.1989997
Susskind, J. E. (2005). PowerPoint’s power in the classroom: enhancing students’ self-efficacy and attitudes. Computers & Education, 45(2), 203–215. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2004.07.005
Taghizadeh, M., & Hajhosseini, F. (2020). Investigating a blended learning environment: Contribution of attitude, interaction, and quality of teaching to satisfaction of graduate students of TEFL. Asia-Pacific Education Researcher. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40299-020-00531-z
Taib, N. M., Amin, S. M., Yazid, Z. A., & Harun, H. (2021). Effects of gender, age, and internet competency on internet usage among academicians during the movement control order (MCO) in Malaysia. Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Advanced Materials Engineering & Technology (ICAMET 2020). https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0052375
Tibi, M.H. (2018). Computer science students’ attitudes towards the use of structured and unstructured discussion forums in online courses. Online Learning, 22(1), 93-106. https://doi.org/10.24059/olj.v22i1.995
Tseng, H., Yeh, H., & Tang, Y. (2019). A close look at trust among team members in online learning communities. International Journal of Distance Education Technologies, 17(1). https://doi.org/10.4018/IJDET.2019010104
Tutal, Ö., & Yazar, T. (2021). Flipped classroom improves academic achievement , learning retention and attitude towards course: A meta‑analysis. Asia Pacific Education Review. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12564-021-09706-9
Unal, E., & Uzun, A. M. (2020). Understanding university students’ behavioral intention to use Edmodo through the lens of an extended technology acceptance model. British Journal of Educational Technology. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.13046
United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). (2021). Situation analysis on the effects of and responses to COVID-19 on the education sector in Asia. UNICEF ROSA, UNICEF EAPRO, UNESCO Bangkok, Cambridge Education. https://www.unicef.org/eap/reports/covid-19-education-situation-analysis-asia
Ventayen, R. J. M., Estira, K. L. A., De Guzman, M. J., Cabaluna, C. M., & Espinosa, N. N. (2018). Usability evaluation of google classroom: Basis for the adaptation of gsuite e-learning platform. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, Arts, and Sciences, 5(1), 47-51.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Harvard University Press
Walstad, W.B. (1987). Attitudes, opinions, and economic understanding. Theory Into Practice, 26(3), 223- 23.
Wan, G. C., Gao, C., & Tong, M. S. (2017). An efficient method for changing undergraduate students’ addiction to the computer games into the interest of learning. 2017 IEEE 6th International Conference on Teaching, Assessment, and Learning for Engineering (TALE). https://doi.org/10.1109/TALE.2017.8252324
Weinberger, Y., & Shonfeld, M. (2018). Students’ willingness to practice collaborative learning. Teaching Education, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1080/10476210.2018.1508280
Wengrowicz, N., Swart, W., Paul, R., Macleod, K., Dori, D., & Dori, Y. J. (2018). Students’ collaborative learning attitudes and their satisfaction with online collaborative case-based courses. American Journal of Distance Education, 32(4), 283–300. https://doi.org/10.1080/08923647.2018.1511509
Whitman Cobb, W.N. (2016). Turning the classroom upside down: Experimenting with the flipped classroom in american government. Journal of Political Science Education, 12(1), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1080/15512169.2015.1063437
Xu J. (2018). Reciprocal effects of homework self-concept, interest, effort, and math achievement. Contemporary Educational Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2018.09.002
Yılmaz, A.B. (2017). Student opinions towards blended learning environment created according to individual and collaborative study preferences. Journal of Learning and Teaching in Digital Age, 2(2), 36-45.
Yilmaz, R., & Karaoglan Yilmaz, F. G. (2020). Examination of the effectiveness of the task and group awareness support system used for computer-supported collaborative learning. Educational Technology Research and Development. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-020-09741-0
Zhang, S., Chen, W., & Looi, C.K. (2018). Exploring chinese undergraduate students’ perceptions of collaboration and satisfaction in the context of online collaborative learning. In J. C. Yang, M. Chang, L.-H. Wong, & M. M. T. Rodrigo (Eds.), Proceedings of the 26th International Conference on Computers in Education (ICCE) 2018 (pp. 428-433). Manila, Philippines: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education (APSCE). https://apsce.net/icce/icce2018/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/C4-08.pdf
Zinn, J. O. (2021). Conclusions: Towards a sociology of pandemics and beyond. Current Sociology. https://doi.org/10.1177/00113921211023518