Open and Distance Learning: Factors Affecting the Learning Performance of First-Year Students in Higher Education Institution

  • Siti Fazilah Hamid
  • Norlaili Harun
  • Nor Hidayatun Abdul Razak
  • Musramaini Mustapha
  • Noorsuraya Mohd Mokhtar


The pandemic of Coronavirus (COVID-19) has resulted the universities to switch from face to face learning to open and distance learning (ODL) whereby teaching and learning is undertaken remotely and on digital platforms.  Although ODL is considered as a good solution to the teaching and learning problems, students still have problems engaging and participating in the learning process.  Some students without reliable internet access and/or technology struggle to participate in digital learning.  Hence, this research was conducted among the first-year diploma students in a public university in Malaysia. The purpose of this research is to identify the factors affecting ODL learning performance among the first-year students in higher education institution.  This research used a quantitative method approach. The data were collected using a purposive sampling technique which involved 92 of respondents. The data was gathered through online surveys and analyzed using the SPSS version 27.  Research results show that motivation significantly affects students’ academic performance, but not other factors.  Therefore, this study can add value to the ODL literature as a learning trends in higher education institution in Malaysia.


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How to Cite
HAMID, Siti Fazilah et al. Open and Distance Learning: Factors Affecting the Learning Performance of First-Year Students in Higher Education Institution. International Journal of Advanced Research in Education and Society, [S.l.], v. 3, n. 4, p. 11-20, dec. 2021. ISSN 2682-8138. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 10 aug. 2022.