A New Redefinition of Geodetic and Plane Coordinates on UTM Geodetic Markers
The entire Peninsular Malaysia is situated on Sunda Tectonic Plate, which is subjected to motion at a prominent rate. All the geodetic infrastructures, including geodetic markers, benchmarks, Continuous Operating Reference Stations and Cadastral Reference Marks have moved away from their original position, and their existing coordinates are no longer reliable and secure to use. There are 10 geodetic markers around UTM that are subjected to the issue above. This study aims to redefine new geodetic and plane coordinates on UTM geodetic markers. Two units of Trimble NetR9 Geodetic Type Receiver are used to execute 3D GNSS Control Network on geodetic markers as well as Standard Benchmarks. Receiver Independent Exchange data of Continuous Operating Reference Stations and gravimetric geoid of MyGeoid model are retrieved from Department of Survey and Mapping Malaysia. Trimble Business Center, Golden Surfer 8 and StarNet are used as post-processing, geoid interpolation and one-dimensional network adjustment software, respectively. New sets of geodetic and plane coordinates along with orthometric heights are produced for these 10 geodetic markers. Eventually, UTM geodetic markers are tied to Geocentric Datum Malaysia 2000 (2016) and National Geodetic Vertical Datum, providing reliable horizontal and vertical reference for land surveying work to fulfil both industrial and educational purposes.
Keywords: Coordinate redefinition, geodetic coordinate, plane coordinate, geodetic marker
Copyright violation is an important, and possibly related, ethical issue. Authors should check their manuscripts for possible breaches of copyright law (e.g., where permissions are needed for quotations, artwork or tables taken from other publications or from other freely available sources on the Internet) and secure the necessary permissions before submission to BEJ. Post publication Our Publisher, UiTM Press holds the copyright to all published articles. The author(s) should submit the BEJ’s Copyright Permission form to the Chief Executive Editor once the manuscript has been accepted for publication. BEJ authors must ask for permission to publish their article (or a selection from the article) elsewhere, such as a BEJ article later appearing as a book chapter or as a translation.
Any work in the manuscript that has been proven to contain any form of plagiarism, falsification, fabrications, or omission of significant material constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable. Such cases will be handled according to the practices of the Journal’s Editorial Board and University Publications Committee. Editors and/or reviewers shall report cases of suspected unethical publishing behavior of the author(s) to the attention of the Editor-in-Chief or Chief Executive Editor who shall ensure an appropriate action and subsequently bring it to the Journal’s Editorial Board and University Publications Committee for a suitable action below depending upon the severity of the unethical behavior.
- Notice to the author(s) involved,
- Rejection of the manuscript,
- Ban (subjects to the Editorial board).