A Comprehensive Framework for Middle Leaders’ Competencies in Promoting Teachers' Technology Acceptance in Education 4.0

  • Yip Jeunhan UNIVERSITY OF MALAYA
  • Kenny Cheah Soon Lee

Abstract

The era of Education 4.0 presents new challenges and opportunities for school leaders to drive technology integration and acceptance among teachers. Middle leaders, situated between senior leadership and teaching staff, play a pivotal role in this process. However, existing competency models for educational leaders in Malaysia, such as SKKSM and KOMPAS, do not adequately address the specific competencies required by middle leaders to navigate the demands of Education 4.0 and promote technology acceptance. This article proposes a comprehensive conceptual framework for middle leaders' competencies, adapted from the School Leadership Competency Model for the era of Education 4.0 (SLCMEduc4.0). The framework encompasses nine key competency domains: emotional intelligence, leading for learning, digital dexterity, management and administration, entrepreneurial, communication and ethics, decision making and problem solving, collaboration, and critical thinking. By fostering these competencies, middle leaders can create a supportive environment that encourages teachers to embrace technology and effectively integrate it into their teaching practices. The article highlights the importance of developing middle leadership competencies to drive technology acceptance among teachers and ensure the successful implementation of Education 4.0 initiatives in Malaysian schools.

References

A'mar, F., & Eleyan, D. (2022). Effect of Principal's Technology Leadership on Teacher's Technology Integration. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INSTRUCTION, 15(1), 781-798.
Abdul Razzak, N. L. (2015). The lived-through experience of the senior teacher: A closer look at a middle management and leadership position in Bahraini public schools. COGENT EDUCATION, 2(1), 1123084.
Admiraal, W., Schenke, W., De Jong, L., Emmelot, Y., & Sligte, H. (2021). Schools as professional learning communities: what can schools do to support professional development of their teachers? PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN EDUCATION, 47(4), 684-698.
Alanazi, T. R., Khalaf, B., & Rasli, A. (2013). Overview of path-goal leadership theory. Jurnal Teknologi, 64(2).
Arumugham, K. S. (2022). Pentaksiran Bilik Darjah (PBD) Dalam Norma Baharu: Pemimpin Pertengahan Dalam Mengupayakan Pelaksanaan PBD Berasaskan Teknologi: Classroom Assessment (PBD) In A New Norm: Middle Leaders in Enhancing PBD Based on Technology Implementation. Sains Insani, 7(1), 37-43.
Baena, F., Guarin, A., Mora, J., Sauza, J., & Retat, S. (2017). Learning factory: The path to industry 4.0. Procedia manufacturing, 9, 73-80.
Bassett, M. (2016). The role of middle leaders in New Zealand secondary schools: Expectations and challenges. Waikato Journal of Education, 21(1), 97-108.
Bassett, M., & Shaw, N. (2018). Building the confidence of first-time middle leaders in New Zealand primary schools. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT, 32(5), 749-760. https://doi.org/10.1108/ijem-05-2017-0101
Belasen, A., & Belasen, A. R. (2016). Value in the middle: Cultivating middle managers in healthcare organizations. JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT.
Beram, S., Awang, M., & Ismail, R. (2020). Pembangunan model kompetensi pemimpin pertengahan: Satu kajian reka bentuk dan pembangunan. Journal of Educational Research & Indegenous Studies Journal, 2(1), 1-11.
Beram, S., Awang, M., Ismail, R., & Noor, N. (2021). Application of the Fuzzy Delphi Method to organisational leadership competencies for educational middle leaders. Management Research Journal, 10, 82-93.
Beram, S., Awang, M., Ismail, R., Ramalu, R. R., Noor, N., Yoong, S. M., Kho, F. C. Y., & Samichan, A. (2023). Professional Leadership Competencies for Malaysian Educational Middle Leaders. Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities, 31(4).
Bezzina, M. (2012). Paying attention to moral purpose in leading learning: Lessons from the leaders transforming learning and learners project. EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT ADMINISTRATION & LEADERSHIP, 40(2), 248-271.
Bonfield, C. A., Salter, M., Longmuir, A., Benson, M., & Adachi, C. (2020). Transformation or evolution?: Education 4.0, teaching and learning in the digital age. Higher Education Pedagogies, 5(1), 223-246.
BPG, B. P. G. (2019). Terma Rujukan Dan Pengurusan Pelaksanaan Program Transformasi Sekolah 2025 (TS25).
Brown-Martin, G. (2018, February). Education and the Fourth Industrial Revolution.
Bryant, D. A., Lun, W. Y., & Adames, A. (2020). How middle leaders support in-service teachers' on-site professional learning [Article]. International Journal of Educational Research, 100, 17, Article 101530. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2019.101530
Bush, T. (2021). Conclusion: School leadership in Malaysia–past, present and future. In School Leadership in Malaysia (pp. 175-186). Routledge.
Bush, T., & Glover, D. (2014). School leadership models: What do we know? SCHOOL LEADERSHIP & MANAGEMENT, 34(5), 553-571.
Bush, T., & Ng, A. Y. M. (2019). Distributed leadership and the Malaysia Education Blueprint: From prescription to partial school-based enactment in a highly centralised context [Article]. Journal of Educational Administration, 57(3), 279-295. https://doi.org/10.1108/jea-11-2018-0206
Cardno, C., & Robson, J. (2016). Realising the value of performance appraisal for middle leaders in New Zealand secondary schools. Research in Educational Administration and Leadership, 1(2), 229-254.
Çetin, M., & Karsantık, I. (2022). Current Trends in School Management: School Leadership in Education 4.0. Educational Theory in the 21st Century: Science, Technology, Society and Education, 197.
Creaton, J., & Heard-Lauréote, K. (2021). Rhetoric and Reality in Middle Management: The Role of Heads of Academic Departments in UK Universities [Article]. Higher Education Policy, 34(1), 195-217. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41307-018-00128-8
Crossan, M. M. (1996). The knowledge-creating company: How Japanese companies create the dynamics of innovation. In: JSTOR.
Crowther, F. (2016). Energising teaching: The power of your unique pedagogical gift. ACER Press.
Davis. (1989). Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, and User Acceptance of Information Technology. MIS QUARTERLY, 13, 319. https://doi.org/10.2307/249008
Davis, F. D. (1986). A technology acceptance model for empirically testing new end-user information systems. Cambridge, MA, 17.
Day, C., & Grice, C. (2019). Investigating the influence and impact of leading from the middle: A school-based strategy for middle leaders in schools.
Day, C., Sammons, P., Hopkins, D., Harris, A., Leithwood, K., Gu, Q., Brown, E., Ahtaridou, E., & Kington, A. (2009). The impact of school leadership on pupil outcomes. Final report.
De Nobile, J. (2016). The 10C model of organisational communication: Exploring the interactions of school leaders. NZARE Conference & Annual Meeting 2016,
De Nobile, J. (2018). Towards a theoretical model of middle leadership in schools [Article]. School Leadership & Management, 38(4), 395-416. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632434.2017.1411902
Díez, F., Villa, A., López, A., & Iraurgi, I. (2020). Impact of quality management systems in the performance of educational centers: educational policies and management processes. Heliyon, 6(4), e03824.
Din, R. (2021). The Practice Level Amongst Middle Leaders Teacher of School to Increas Quality of Theacer and Increase Achievements of Students Refer to Skpmg2 Std 3, in Facing Industrial Revolutional Education 4.0 (2516-2314).
Dinham, S. (2007). The secondary head of department and the achievement of exceptional student outcomes. JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION, 45(1), 62-79.
Dinham, S. (2016). Leading learning and teaching. ACER Press.
Drysdale, L., & Gurr, D. (2017). Leadership in uncertain times. International Studies in Educational Administration, 45(2), 131-159.
Duignan, P. (2012). Educational leadership: Together creating ethical learning environments. Cambridge University Press.
Edwards-Groves, C., Grootenboer, P., Hardy, I., & Rönnerman, K. (2019). Driving change from 'the middle': middle leading for site based educational development [Article]. School Leadership & Management, 39(3-4), 315-333. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632434.2018.1525700
Edwards-Groves, C., Grootenboer, P., & Ronnerman, K. (2016). Facilitating a culture of relational trust in school-based action research: recognising the role of middle leaders. Educational action REsEaRch, 24(3), 369-386.
Fadaee, A., & Abd Alzahrh, H. O. (2014). Explaining the relationship between creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship. International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences, 3(12), 1-4.
Farchi, T., & Tubin, D. (2019). Middle leaders in successful and less successful schools. SCHOOL LEADERSHIP & MANAGEMENT, 39(3-4), 372-390.
Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1977). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Philosophy and Rhetoric, 10(2).
Fleming, P. (2014). Successful middle leadership in secondary schools: A practical guide to subject and team effectiveness. Routledge.
Fleming, P. (2019). What is middle leadership? In Successful Middle Leadership in Secondary Schools (pp. 1-19). Routledge.
Forde, C., Hamilton, G., Bhroithe, W. N., Nihill, M., & Rooney, A. M. (2019). Evolving policy paradigms of middle leadership in Scottish and Irish education: implications for middle leadership professional development. SCHOOL LEADERSHIP & MANAGEMENT, 39(3-4), 297-314. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632434.2018.1539962
Foulger, T. S., Graziano, K. J., Schmidt-Crawford, D., & Slykhuis, D. A. (2017). Teacher educator technology competencies. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 25(4), 413-448.
FR, A. F., Roesminingsih, E., & Sumbawati, M. S. (2021). The Leadership of School Principal in The Education Era 4.0. Nidhomul Haq: Jurnal Manajemen Pendidikan Islam, 6(2), 244-250.
Ghamrawi, N. (2010). No teacher left behind: Subject leadership that promotes teacher leadership. EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT ADMINISTRATION & LEADERSHIP, 38(3), 304-320.
Ghavifekr, S., Hoon, A. L. S., Ling, H. F., & Ching, T. M. (2017). Heads of departments as transformational leaders in schools: Issues and challenges. MOJEM: Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Management, 2(3), 119-139.
González-Pérez, L. I., & Ramírez-Montoya, M. S. (2022). Components of Education 4.0 in 21st century skills frameworks: systematic review. Sustainability, 14(3), 1493.
Grootenboer, P. (2018). The practices of school middle leadership. Springer.
Grootenboer, P., Edwards-Groves, C., & Rönnerman, K. (2020). Middle leadership in schools: A practical guide for leading learning. Routledge.
Grootenboer, P., Rönnerman, K., & Edwards-Groves, C. (2017). Leading from the middle: A praxis-oriented practice. In Practice Theory Perspectives on Pedagogy and Education (pp. 243-263). Springer.
Gurer, M. D. (2021). Examining technology acceptance of pre-service mathematics teachers in Turkey: A structural equation modeling approach. EDUCATION AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES, 26(4), 4709-4729.
Gurr, D. (2019). School middle leaders in Australia, Chile and Singapore [Article]. School Leadership & Management, 39(3-4), 278-296. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632434.2018.1512485
Gurr, D., & Drysdale, L. (2013). Middle‐level secondary school leaders: Potential, constraints and implications for leadership preparation and development. JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION.
Håkansson Lindqvist, M., & Pettersson, F. (2019). Digitalization and school leadership: on the complexity of leading for digitalization in school. The international journal of information and learning technology, 36(3), 218-230.
Hallinger, P., & Walker, A. (2017). Leading learning in Asia–emerging empirical insights from five societies. JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION, 55(2), 130-146.
Hargreaves, A., & Ainscow, M. (2015). The top and bottom of leadership and change. Phi Delta Kappan, 97(3), 42-48.
Harris, A., Jones, M., Ismail, N., & Nguyen, D. (2019). Middle leaders and middle leadership in schools: Exploring the knowledge base (2003–2017). School Leadership & Management, 39(3-4), 255-277.
Hefnawi, A. (2021). Leading for sustainable improvement: middle leadership revisited. Management in Education, 08920206211053108.
Huerta Villalobos, M. (2018). Educational leadership and the contribution of the technical pedagogical head across three types of schools in one Chilean region Doctoral thesis, the University of Melbourne].
IAB. (2020). STANDARD KOMPETENSI PEMIMPIN SEKOLAH MALAYSIA 2.0.
Irvine, P., & Brundrett, M. (2016). Middle leadership and its challenges: A case study in the secondary independent sector. Management in Education, 30(2), 86-92.
Irvine, P. A., & Brundrett, M. (2019). Negotiating the next step: The part that experience plays with middle leaders' development as they move into their new role [Article]. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 47(1), 74-90. https://doi.org/10.1177/1741143217720457
Ismail, S. N., Don, Y., Husin, F., & Khalid, R. (2018). Instructional Leadership and Teachers' Functional Competency across the 21st Century Learning. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INSTRUCTION, 11(3), 135-152.
Javadi, V., Bush, T., & Ng, A. (2017). Middle leadership in international schools: evidence from Malaysia [Article]. School Leadership & Management, 37(5), 476-499. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632434.2017.1366439
Jedaman, P., Buaraphan, K., Pimvichai, J., Yuenyong, C., & Jeerasombat, S. (2019). Educational management in transition of science: Policies and strategic leaders for sustainable education 4.0 in the 21st century science classroom. AIP Conference Proceedings,
Jedaman, P., Teemueangsa, S., Suksai, L., Darae, P., & Jongmuanwai, B. (2020). Professional Leadership: Competencies & Skills under 21 st Century for Sustainable Education Management, Thailand.
Kareem, O. A., & Kin, T. M. (2018). The development of principal change leadership emotional intelligence model. International Journal of Management in Education, 12(3), 276-313.
Kassim, U. K., & Teng, P. K. (2018). Conceptual Study on Enhancement of Education 4.0 from Management Perspective. 10th International Conference on Language, Education, and Innovation, on 14th–15th April. Available online also at: https://pdfs. semanticscholar. org/aa60/93cc2d0e6b06e2fb31b2914b4dd3ce5f7888. pdf [accessed in Tanjong Malim, Malaysia: January 10, 2019],
Kemmis, S., Wilkinson, J., Edwards-Groves, C., Hardy, I., Grootenboer, P., & Bristol, L. (2013). Changing practices, changing education. Springer Science & Business Media.
Kin, T. M., & Kareem, O. A. (2019). School leaders’ Competencies that make a difference in the Era of Education 4.0: A Conceptual Framework. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 9(4), 214-225.
Kin, T. M., Kareem, O. A., Musa, K., Ghouri, A. M., & Khan, N. R. (2020). Leading sustainable schools in the Era of Education 4.0: Identifying school leadership competencies in Malaysian secondary schools. International Journal of Management in Education, 14(6), 580-610.
Kin, T. M., Omar, A. K., & KhalipMusa, A. M. G. (2022). Leading Teaching and Learning in the Era of Education 4.0: The Relationship between Perceived Teacher Competencies and Teacher Attitudes toward Change. Asian Journal of University Education (AJUE), 18(1).
Koehler, M., & Mishra, P. (2009). What is technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK)? Contemporary issues in technology and teacher education, 9(1), 60-70.
Koh, H. H. (2018). The leadership role of middle leaders in six selected primary schools in Singapore. Unpublished Doctor of Philosophy Thesis), The University of Mebourne, Melbourne.
Lau, J. Y. (2011). An introduction to critical thinking and creativity: Think more, think better. John Wiley & Sons.
Lee, W. O. (2012). Moral leadership: Where the East meets the West. MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION REVIEW, 4(1), 29-50.
Leithwood, K. (2016). Department-head leadership for school improvement. LEADERSHIP AND POLICY IN SCHOOLS, 15(2), 117-140.
Li, S. C., Poon, A. Y. K., Lai, T. K. H., & Tam, S. T. C. (2021). Does middle leadership matter? Evidence from a study of system-wide reform on English language curriculum [Article]. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 24(2), 226-243. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603124.2018.1529823
Lian, C. L., Yusof, N. M., & Vyapury, D. (2017). KEPIMPINAN TEKNOLOGI SEKOLAH: PEMBUDAYAAN PENGINTEGRASIAN ICT DALAM PENDIDIKAN. prosiding, 121.
Lillejord, S., & Borte, K. (2020). Middle leaders and the teaching profession: building intelligent accountability from within [Article]. Journal of Educational Change, 21(1), 83-107. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10833-019-09362-2
Lipscombe, K., Grice, C., Tindall-Ford, S., & De-Nobile, J. (2020). Middle leading in Australian schools: professional standards, positions, and professional development. SCHOOL LEADERSHIP & MANAGEMENT, 40(5), 406-424. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632434.2020.1731685
Lipscombe, K., Tindall-Ford, S., & Grootenboer, P. (2020). Middle leading and influence in two Australian schools [Article]. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 48(6), 1063-1079, Article 1741143219880324. https://doi.org/10.1177/1741143219880324
Lipscombe, K., Tindall-Ford, S., & Lamanna, J. (2021). School middle leadership: A systematic review. EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT ADMINISTRATION & LEADERSHIP, 1741143220983328.
Listiningrum, H. D., Wisetsri, W., & Boussanlegue, T. (2020). Principal’s entrepreneurship competence in improving teacher’s entrepreneurial skill in high schools. Journal of Social Work and Science Education, 1(1), 87-95.
Liu, H., Wang, L., & Koehler, M. J. (2019). Exploring the intention‐behavior gap in the technology acceptance model: A mixed‐methods study in the context of foreign‐language teaching in China. BRITISH JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY, 50(5), 2536-2556.
Manaf, A. R. (2017). Pembinaan dan pengesahsahihan model kompetensi guru penolong kanan pentadbiran dan akademik sekolah menengah Malaysia Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris].
Manaf, A. R., Ahmad, A. M. t., Omar, N. A., Ahmad Dawa, N. R., Azizan, N., Osman, H., Jantan, R., & Wahab, R. (2020). Kursus kepimpinan untuk pemimpin pertengahan (LCML).
Mason, M. (2007). Critical thinking and learning. Educational philosophy and theory, 39(4), 339-349.
Mbokasi, B., Visser, D., & Fourie, L. (2004). Management perceptions of competencies essential for middle managers. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 30(1), 1-9.
MEB. (2013). Malaysia education blueprint 2013-2025.
MOE. (1986). Surat Pekeliling Ikhtisas Bil. 4/1986. Ministry of Education Malaysia
MOE. (2013). Pelan Pembangunan Pendidikan Malaysia.
Mohammad, L. F., Mansor, A. N., Idrus, R. M., & Alias, B. S. (2021). Principals’ Transformational Leadership Practices and Teacher Job Satisfaction in TS25 Schools: A Current Survey of the Coronavirus Pandemic. Hong Kong Journal of Social Sciences.
Muijs, D., & Harris, A. (2006). Teacher led school improvement: Teacher leadership in the UK. TEACHING AND TEACHER EDUCATION, 22(8), 961-972.
Muradaa, M. B., & Yunusb, N. A. B. M. N. (2021). PENGARUH PENGUPAYAAN PENGETUA TERHADAP PRESTASI KERJA KETUA PANITIA. Management Research, 11(1), 22-37.
Omar, M. N., & Ismail, S. N. (2020). Karakter kepimpinan teknologi pengetua dalam pengintegrasian ICT di sekolah menengah. JuPiDi: Jurnal Kepimpinan Pendidikan, 7(1), 28-46.
Pal, D., & Vanijja, V. (2020). Perceived usability evaluation of Microsoft Teams as an online learning platform during COVID-19 using system usability scale and technology acceptance model in India. Children and youth services review, 119, 105535.
Pan, H.-L. W., Nyeu, F.-Y., & Cheng, S.-H. (2017). Leading school for learning: Principal practices in Taiwan. JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION, 55(2), 168-185.
Pettersson, F. (2018). On the issues of digital competence in educational contexts–a review of literature. EDUCATION AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES, 23(3), 1005-1021.
Raelin, J. (2022). What Can Leadership-as-Practice Contribute to OD? JOURNAL OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT, 22(1), 26-39.
Ramos, R. P., Bersamin, A. K. K., Prudente, M. S., & Aguja, S. E. (2021). Creating a School Leadership Competency Framework: Setting the Standards for Exemplary Performance. Journal of Advanced Management Science Vol, 9(3).
Regier, J. (2021). People Leaders and Change Managers: Perspectives from the Middle.
Saad, N. M., & Daud, Y. (2018). The Level of Role Conflict among Secondary School Leaders in Kelantan: Tahap Konflik Peranan Pemimpin Sekolah Menengah Di Negeri Kelantan. Educational Leader (PEMIMPIN PENDIDIKAN), 6, 125-139.
Scherer, R., Siddiq, F., & Tondeur, J. (2020). All the same or different? Revisiting measures of teachers' technology acceptance. COMPUTERS & EDUCATION, 143, 103656.
Seifu, K. (2020). Determinants of information and communication technology integration in teaching-learning process at Aksum University. COGENT EDUCATION, 7(1), 1824577.
Shet, S. V., Patil, S., & Chandawarkar, M. R. (2017). Framework for methodical review of literature on leadership competencies. Cogent Business & Management, 4(1), 1309123.
Silam, D., Pang, V., & Lajium, D. (2020). Kompetensi kepimpinan pengetua sekolah di pulau di negeri Sabah. Malaysian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (MJSSH), 5(12), 45-61.
Slater, L. (2005). Leadership for collaboration: An affective process. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION, 8(4), 321-333.
Smith, L., & Riley, D. (2012). School leadership in times of crisis. SCHOOL LEADERSHIP & MANAGEMENT, 32(1), 57-71.
Songkram, N., & Osuwan, H. (2022). Applying the Technology Acceptance Model to Elucidate K-12 Teachers’ Use of Digital Learning Platforms in Thailand during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Sustainability, 14(10), 6027.
Suhaili, A., Osman, K., Effendi, M., & Matore, E. M. (2020). Issues and Challenges of Subject Leadership Competency for Malaysian Head of Science Panels (HoSP).
Syamsul bin Abdul Hamid, S., binti Ismail, A., & Zaharudin, R. (2021). Kepimpinan teknologi guru besar sekolah rendah harian: satu kajian rintis di Kedah. JuPiDi: Jurnal Kepimpinan Pendidikan, 8(3), 38-54.
Szeto, E. (2020). School leadership in the reforms of the Hong Kong education system: insights into school-based development in policy borrowing and indigenising [Article]. School Leadership & Management, 40(4), 266-287. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632434.2019.1616172
Tay, H., Tan, K., Deneen, C., Leong, W., Fulmer, G. W., & Brown, G. T. (2020). Middle leaders’ perceptions and actions on assessment: the technical, tactical and ethical. SCHOOL LEADERSHIP & MANAGEMENT, 40(1), 45-63.
Teh, K. P., & Abdull Kareem, O. (2022). THE SERVANT LEADERSHIP ATTRIBUTES AMONG SUBJECT LEADERS IN MALAYSIA: AN EXPLORATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS. Jurnal Pengurusan dan Kepimpinan Pendidikan, 31(1).
Teh, K. P., Faridah, M., Jamilah, J., Rusli, W., Hong, B. C., & Kalidass, M. (2020). KOMPETENSI PEMIMPIN PERTENGAHAN BAGI ALAF REVOLUSI INDUSTRI 4.0: SATU KERANGKA KONSEPTUAL. Jurnal Pengurusan dan Kepimpinan Pendidikan, 33(1).
Thannimalai, R., & Raman, A. (2018). The Influence of Principals' Technology Leadership and Professional Development on Teachers’ Technology Integration in Secondary Schools. Malaysian Journal of learning and Instruction, 15(1), 201-226.
Venkatesh, V., Morris, M. G., Davis, G. B., & Davis, F. D. (2003). User acceptance of information technology: Toward a unified view. MIS QUARTERLY, 425-478.
Watson, S., & Shannon, M. (2016). Leading From The Middle: A leadership development resource book. Bookboon.
Wei, Y.-C. (2018). The department chair’s troubles: Leadership role of middle managers. Journal of Cases in Educational Leadership, 21(4), 100-111.
Wise, C. (2001). The monitoring role of the academic middle manager in secondary schools. Educational Management & Administration, 29(3), 333-341.
Wongeh, N. E., Kondom, T., Nyamla, E., & Iyalla, C. F. (2022). SUPERVISION IN SCHOOL MANAGEMENT: CHALLENGES AND WAY FORWARD. SAPIENTIA FOUNDATION JOURNAL OF EDUCATION, SCIENCES AND GENDER STUDIES, 4(2).
Wooldridge, B., Schmid, T., & Floyd, S. W. (2008). The middle management perspective on strategy process: Contributions, synthesis, and future research. JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT, 34(6), 1190-1221.
Yuting, Z., Adams, D., & Lee, K. C. S. (2022). The relationship between technology leadership and teacher ICT competency in higher education. EDUCATION AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES, 27(7), 10285-10307.
Zamani, b. I., bin Mohd Yusof, A., Hamid, S., Sapiai, N., & bin Abd Majid, M. K. (2021). PENILAIAN AMALAN PEMBANGUNAN PROFESIONAL DALAM KALANGAN PASUKAN PEMIMPIN DAN PEMIMPIN PERTENGAHAN SEKOLAH DI SEKOLAH TRANSFORMASI NEGERI PAHANG. Jurnal Penyelidikan Dedikasi, 17, 169-183.
Zhang, X. L., Wong, J. L. N., & Wang, X. F. (2021). How do the leadership strategies of middle leaders affect teachers' learning in schools? A case study from China. PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN EDUCATION. https://doi.org/10.1080/19415257.2021.1895284
Published
2024-06-01
How to Cite
JEUNHAN, Yip; CHEAH SOON LEE, Kenny. A Comprehensive Framework for Middle Leaders’ Competencies in Promoting Teachers' Technology Acceptance in Education 4.0. Asian Journal of Research in Education and Social Sciences, [S.l.], v. 6, n. 2, p. 1-25, june 2024. Available at: <https://myjms.mohe.gov.my/index.php/ajress/article/view/26375>. Date accessed: 26 july 2024.
Section
English Section