The Exploration of Bullying Among Preschool Children: A Concept Paper

  • Nur Afini Norazam
  • Fadzilah Amzah
  • Asniza Ishak

Abstract

This conceptual paper aims to promote knowledge and comprehension of bullying among preschool children, preschool teachers, and adults, allowing them to recognize young children bullying behaviours, and thus be able to prevent bullying from occurring and becoming worse. In addition, this study seeks to shed light on the issue of bullying in preschool children by discussing the relation between bullying in early childhood and the Sustainable Developmental Goals (SDGs), as well as focusing on the preschool children's bullying behaviours, the characteristics of bullies and victims of bullying, the social ecology of bullying that relates to bullying factors, and the types of bullying behaviour that occurs among preschool children.

References

Alsaker, F. D. & Nägele, C. (2008). Bullying in kindergarten and prevention. Understanding and Addressing Bullying: An International Perspective, 230–252.
Arifinda, N. A. & Hastuti, D. (2016). The influence of television access and impersonating violent contents to bullying behavior on elementary school children. Journal of Development Studies. 1(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.29244/jcds.1.01.1-12
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1977). Toward an experimental ecology of human development. American psychologist, 32(7), 513.
Bullock, J. R. (2002). Bullying among Children. Childhood Education, 130-133. https://doi.org/10.1080/00094056.2002.10522721
Cameron, D. L., & Kovac, V. B. (2016). An examination of parents’ and preschool workers’ perspectives on bullying in preschool. Early Child Development and Care, 186(12), 1961-1971.
Davis, T. J., & Gere, B. O. (2018). Teachers beliefs and predictors of response to verbal, physical and relational bullying behavior in preschool classrooms. IAFOR Journal of Psychology & the Behavioral Sciences, 4(2), 15-31.
Espelage, D., Bosworth, K. & Simon, T. (2000). Examining the social context of bullying behaviors in early adolescence. Journal of Counseling & Development. 78, 326-333. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.2000.tb01914.x
Giladi, A. (2021, May 20). Can you teach 5-year-olds to protect themselves from bullying and sexual harassment? Voice of Child (VOCA). https://voiceofchild.net/can-you-teach-5-year-olds-to-protect-themselves-from-bullying-and-sexual-harassment/
Georgiou, S. N., & Fanti, K. A. (2010). A transactional model of bullying and victimization. Social Psychology of Education: An International Journal, 13(3), 295–311. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11218-010-9116-0
Gordon, S. (2020, June 20). 3 Types of Prejudicial Bullying. Verywell Family. https://www.verywellfamily.com/3-types-of-prejudicial-bullying-460668
Gordon, S. (2021, May 8). What Is Sexual Bullying and Why Do Kids Engage in It? Verywell Family. https://www.verywellfamily.com/what-is-sexual-bullying-and-why-do-kids-engage-in-it-460499
Gordon, S. (2022, December 13). The different types of bullying parents should watch for. Verywell Family. https://www.verywellfamily.com/types-of-bullying-parents-should-know-about-4153882
Guy-Evans, O. (2023, June 9). Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory. Simply Psychology. https://www.simplypsychology.org/Bronfenbrenner.html
Hanish, L. D., Kochenderfer-Ladd, B., Fabes, R. A., Martin, C. L., & Denning, D. (2004). Bullying among young children: The influence of peers and teachers. Bullying in American schools: A Social Ecological Perspective on Prevention and Intervention, 141–159.
Harcourt, S., Jasperse, M., & Green, V. (2014). “We were sad and we were angry”: A systematic review of parents’ perspectives on bullying. Child and Youth Care Forum, 43, 373-391. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10566-014-9243-4
Huang, H., Liu, Y., & Chen, Y. (2018). Preservice preschool teachers' responses to bullying scenarios: The roles of years of study and empathy. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 175.
Humphrey, L. (2013). Preschool bullying: does it exist, what does it look like, and what can be done?(Masters Thesis, St. Catherine University). https://sophia.stkate.edu/msw_ papers/192
Jamalsafri Saibon, Leong, A. C. H., & Muhamad Zahir Abd. Razak (2017). Enhancing knowledge of bullying behaviour through creative pedagogy among students. Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction, 197-219. https://doi.org/10.32890/mjli.2017.7803.
Kirves, L. & Sajaniemi, N. (2012). Bullying in early educational settings. Early Child Development and Care, 383–400.
Kobayashi, N. (1993). Child ecology: a theoretical basis for solving children's problems in the world. Child Research Net. https://www.childresearch.net/aboutCS/researchers/1993 _01.html
Lee, S. H. (2020). Kindergarten teachers’ perspectives on young children’s bullying roles in relation to dominance and peer relationships: A short-term longitudinal approach in South Korea. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(5), 1734–1758. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051734
Lereya, T., Samara, M. & Wolke, D. (2013). Parenting behavior and the risk of becoming a victim and a bully/victim: A meta-analysis study. Child Abuse & Neglect. 37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2013.03.001.
Low, S., & Espelage, D. (2013). Differentiating cyber bullying perpetration from non-physical bullying: Commonalities across race, individual, and family predictors. Psychology of Violence, 3(1), 39–52. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0030308
Nelson, D. A., Robinson, C. C., Hart, C. H., Albano, A. D., & Marshall, S. J. (2010). Italian preschoolers’ peer-status linkages with sociability and subtypes of aggression and victimization. Social Development. 698–720.
Nor Junainah Mohd Isa, Mohd Sobri Ismail & Amelia Mohd Noor. (2019). Masalah buli dalam kalangan murid: Apakah kata guru? Jurnal Perspektif, 1-14.
Olweus, D. (1993). Bullying at school: What we know and what we can do. Oxford, England: Blackwell Publishers.
Perren, S. & Alsaker, F.D. (2006). Social behavior and peer relationships of victims, bully-victims, and bullies in kindergarten. Journal of Child Psychologival Psychiatry, 45–57.
Positive Action. (2021, March 5). What is physical bullying and how to prevent it? https://www.positiveaction.net/blog/physical-bullying
Positive Action. (2020, December 8). What is verbal bullying and how to prevent it?[A complete guide]. https://www.positiveaction.net/blog/verbal-bullying#what-is
Repo, L. (2015). Bullying and its prevention in early childhood education. (PhD Thesis, University of Helsinki). https://helda.helsinki.fi/bitstream/handle/10138/154445/bullying.pdf? seque
Rose, C. A., Richman, D. M., Fettig, K., Hayner, A., Slavin, C., & Preast, J. L. (2014). Peer reactions to early childhood aggression in a preschool setting: Defenders, encouragers, or neutral bystander. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 246-254.
Schwartz, D., Dodge, K. A., & Coie, J. D. (1994). The emergence of chronic peer victimization in boys’ play groups. Child Development, 1755-1772.
Storey, K., Slaby, R., Adler, M., Minotti, J. & Katz, R. (2008). Eyes on bullying: What can you do? Newton: Education Development Center. http://eyesonbullying.org/pdfs/toolkit.pdf
Storey, K., & Slaby, R. (2013). Eyes on bullying in early childhood. Education Development Center, Inc. http://www.promoteprevent.org/sites/www.promoteprevent.org/files/ resources/Eyes%20on%20Bullying%20in%20Early%20Childhood_1.pdf
Swearer, S. M., & Espelage, D. L. (2004). Introduction: A Social-Ecological Framework of Bullying Among Youth. In S. M. Swearer & D. L. Espelage (Ed.) Bullying in American schools: A social-ecological perspective on prevention and intervention, (pp. 1-12). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.
Swit, C., McMaugh, A., & Warburton, W. (2018). Teacher and parent perceptions of relational and physical aggression during early childhood. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 27, 118-130. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-017-0861-y
United Nations (UN) General Assembly. (1989). Convention on the Rights of the Child. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CRC.aspx.
United Nations. (2015). Transforming our world: the 2030 agenda for sustainable development. http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/70/1&Lang=E
Vlachou, M., Andreou, E., Botsoglou, K, & Didaskalou, E. (2011). Bully/victim problems among preschool children: A review of current research evidence. Educational Psychology Review, 23, 329–358. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-011-9153-z.
Vlachou, M., Botsoglou, K., & Andreou, E. (2013). Assessing bully/victim problems in preschool children: A multimethod approach. Journal of Criminology, 8.
Published
2024-03-01
How to Cite
NORAZAM, Nur Afini; AMZAH, Fadzilah; ISHAK, Asniza. The Exploration of Bullying Among Preschool Children: A Concept Paper. Asian Journal of Research in Education and Social Sciences, [S.l.], v. 6, n. 1, p. 258-268, mar. 2024. Available at: <https://myjms.mohe.gov.my/index.php/ajress/article/view/25969>. Date accessed: 20 may 2024.
Section
English Section