Factors from Academics that Affect Student Learning in an Online Educational Setting

  • Nur Aisyah Aqilah Mohd Fauzi
  • Norshima Zainal Shah
  • Norashikin Sahol Hamid

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic that hit Malaysia in the first quarter of 2020 has pushed higher education institutions (HEIs) to implement online learning as a substitute. Regardless of the challenges of online learning that many researchers have studied, lecturer factors that influence students’ learning are deemed to be examined during online learning as students’ academic engagement depends on various aspects, such as lecturers. This study investigates the students’ opinions on the lecturers’ actions during online learning to identify factors that make their learning on the English communication online course easier during the pandemic. A qualitative approach using thematic analysis was conducted, in which the data were collected from 445 NDUM undergraduates through a questionnaire. The findings indicated that the factors that enhance students learning are lecturer competence, teaching aids, teaching assessment, class activity, and online classroom management. The findings further revealed that teaching competence, such as the lecturer’s knowledge of the course content, significantly impacted the students’ learning during the pandemic. However, online classroom management is the minor factor the students mention the most. In addition, these findings also support the technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) framework, which consists of three types of knowledge that lecturers are required to combine: technology, pedagogy, and content. Hence, by identifying and understanding the factors, HEIs can develop strategies to ensure that the lecturers take the necessary actions. The study implies that maximising lecturer competence in knowledge during online learning can improve students’ learning achievements at the end of the online course.

References

Adnan, M., & Anwar, K. (2020). Online Learning amid the COVID-19 Pandemic: Students’ Perspectives. Journal of Pedagogical Sociology & Psychology, 2(1), 45-51. https://doi.org/10.33902/JPSP.2020261309
Alcott, B. (2017). Does Teacher Encouragement Influence Students’ Educational Progress? A Propensity-Score Matching Analysis. Research in Higher Education, 58, 773-804. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11162-017-9446-2
Alzahrani, M. (2022). Traditional Learning Compared to Online Learning During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Lessons Learned from Faculty’s Perspectives. SAGE Open. https://doi.org/10.1177/21582440221091
Amoah, S., & Yeboah, J. (2021). The speaking difficulties of Chinese EFL learners and their motivation towards speaking the English language. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 17(1), 56-69. DOI: 10.52462/jlls.4
Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101, DOI: 10.1191/1478088706qp063oa
Burhanuddin, A. (2021). Improving Students’ Oral Communication Skills in Public Speaking through Individual Presentation Task. Jurnal Lingua Idea, 12(2), 159-167. DOI: 10.20884/1.jli.2021.12.2.4002
Christie, L. S. & Listyani. (2018). Teachers’ Strategies to Improve Students’ Self-Confidence in Speaking. Register Journal, 11(2), 121-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.18326/rgt.v11i2.139-153
Chtouki, Y., Harroud, H., Khalidi, M., & Bennani, S. (2012, June 21-23). The impact of YouTube videos on the student's learning [Paper presentation]. International Conference on Information Technology Based Higher Education and Training. Istanbul, Turkey. DOI: 10.1109/ITHET.2012.6246045
Chugh, R., & Ruhi, U. (2018). Social media in higher education: A literature review of Facebook. Education & Information Technologies, 23, 605-616. DOI:10.1007/s10639-017-9621-2
Coman, C., Ţîru, L. G., Meseşan-Schmitz, L., Stanciu, C., & Bularca, M. C. (2020). Online Teaching and Learning in Higher Education during the Coronavirus Pandemic: Students’ Perspective. Sustainability, 12, 10367.
Darkwa, B. F. & Antwi, S. (2021). From Classroom to Online: Comparing the Effectiveness and Student Academic Performance of Classroom Learning and Online Learning. Open Access Library Journal, 8, 1-22. DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1107597
eLearning Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia. (2017, July 5). Informasi mengenai Moodle/e-Learning - MOOC (Massive Open Online Courses). https://elearning.upnm.edu.my/pluginfile.php/52/mod_forum/attachment/2339/Maklumat%20Moodle%20e-Learning.pptx?forcedownload=1
Fajri, M., & Indah, R. N. (2022). Student’s Speaking Problems in Online Learning: A Systematic Research Review. Tell: Teaching of English Language & Literature, 10(2), 99-111. DOI: 10.30651/tell.v10i2.13559
Ilias, A., Baidi, N., Ghani, E. K., & Razali, F. M. (2020). Issues on the Use of Online Learning: An Exploratory Study Among University Students during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8(11), 5092-5105. DOI: 10.13189/ujer.2020.081109
Lari, F. S. (2014). The Impact of Using PowerPoint Presentations on Students’ Learning and Motivation in Secondary Schools. Procedia - Social & Behavioral Sciences, 98. 1672-1677. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.03.592
Makarova, E. (2021, April 6-9). Effectiveness of traditional and online learning: comparative analysis from the student perspective [Paper presentation]. SHS Web of Conferences, Ekaterinburg, Russia. https://doi.org/10.1051/shsconf/20219901019
Martin, N. K, Yin, Z. & Baldwin, B. (1998). Construct validation of the attitudes and beliefs on classroom control theory. Journal of Classroom Interaction, 33(2), 6-15.
Martin, N. K., Yin, Z., & Mayall, H. (2006). Classroom Management Training, Teaching Experience and Gender: Do These Variables Impact Teachers’ Attitudes and Beliefs Toward Classroom Management Style? [Paper presentation]. Annual Conference of the Southwest Educational Research Association, Austin, TX.
Mazlan, L. M., & Kamal, M. A. A. (2022). Students’ Perceptions on the Use of English Movies to Enhance English Language Competency. Journal of Creative Practices in Language Learning & Teaching, 10(2), 80-89. DOI: 10.24191/cplt.v10i2.19187
Meirovitz, T., Russak, S., & Zur, A. (2022). English as a foreign language teachers’ perceptions regarding their pedagogical-technological knowledge and its implementation in distance learning during COVID-19. Heliyon, 8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2022.e09175
Mishra, P. & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A Framework for Teacher Knowledge. Teacher College Record, 108(6), 1017-1054.
Nuangchalern, P. (2020). TPACK in ASEAN perspectives: Case study on Thai pre-service teacher. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, 9(4), 993-999. DOI: 10.11591/ijere.v9i4.20700
Paolini, A. (2015). Enhancing Teaching Effectiveness and Student Learning Outcomes. The Journal of Effective Teaching, 15(1), 20-33.
Pereira, T., Amaral, A., & Mendes, I. (2023). A Competency Definition Based on the Knowledge, Skills, and Human Dispositions Constructs. In Pereira, T., Impagliazzo, J., & Santos, H. (Eds.), Internet of Everything (pp. 29-38). Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-25222-8_3
Prayudha, J., & Pradana, A. (2023). An Analysis of Students’ Difficulties in English Conversation Practice. Journal Corner of Education, Linguistics, & Literature, 2(3), 215-222. DOI: 10.54012/jcell.v2i3.119
Pringle, R. M., Dawson, K., & Ritzhaupt, A. D. (2015). Integrating Science and Technology: Using Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge as a Framework to Study the Practices of Science Teachers. Journal of Science Education & Technology, 24, 648-662. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-015-9553-9
Purwati, D. (2020). The Effects of Lecturers’ Formal and Informal Talks on Students’ Understanding of the Material in the Language Learning Process. Journal of Language Teaching & Learning, Linguistics & Literature, 8(1), 93-104. DOI: 10.24256/ideas.v8i1.1315
Quek, C. L. G., Liu, C., Kang, S., Wang, Q., & Nonis, D. (2014). Validation of Attitudes and Beliefs on Classroom Control Inventory among Beginning Teachers in Singapore Schools. Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 24(1). DOI: 10.1007/s40299-013-0168-8
Reyes-Millán, M., Villareal-Rodríguez, M., Murrieta-Flores, M. E., Bedolla-Cornejo, L., Vázquez-Villegas, P., & Membrillo-Hernández, J. (2023). Evaluation of online learning readiness in the new distance learning normality. Heliyon, 9(11). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e22070
Savran, A., & Çakıroğlu, J. (2004). Preservice Science Teachers’ Orientations to Classroom Management. Hacettepe Universitesi Egitim Fakultesi Dergisi-hacettepe University Journal of Education, 26, 124-130.
Schmidt, D. A., Baran, E., Thompson, A. D., Mishra, P., Koehler, M. J., & Shin, T. S. (2009). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK): The Development and Validation of an Assessment Instrument for Preservice Teachers. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 42(2), 123-149.
Sekkal, K. (2020). Impromptu Speech for Strengthening Tertiary Students’ Oral Communication Competencies in Large Classes. International Journal of English Literature & Social Sciences, 5(3), 574-581. DOI: 10.22161/ijels.53.2
Shabiralyani, G., Hasan, K. S., Hamad, N., & Iqbal, N. (2015). Impact of Visual Aids in Enhancing the Learning Process Case Research: District Dera Ghazi Khan. Journal of Education & Practice, 6(19), 226-233. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1079541.pdf
Shepard, L. A. (2019). Classroom Assessment to Support Teaching and Learning. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political & Social Science, 683(1), 183-200. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002716219843818
Shi, Y., Yang, H., Dou, Y., & Zeng, Y. (2023). Effects of mind mapping-based instruction on student cognitive learning outcomes: a meta-analysis. Asia Pacific Education Review, 24, 303-317. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12564-022-09746-9
Smith IV, D. H., Hao, Q., Dennen, V., Tsikerdekis, M., Barnes, B., Martin, L., & Tresham, N. (2020). Towards Understanding Online Question & Answer Interactions and their effects on student performance in large-scale STEM classes. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 17(20). https://doi.org/10.1186/s41239-020-00200-7
Süt, H. M., & Öznaçar, B. (2017). Effect of COVID-19 period on educational systems and institutions. International Journal of Curriculumand Instruction, 13(1), 537-551.
Tadesse. S., & Muluye, W. (2020). The Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Education System in Developing Countries: A Review. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 8(10), 159-170. DOI: 10.4236/jss.2020.810011
Tipmontree, S., & Tasanameelarp, A. (2020). Using Role Playing Activities to Improve Thai EFL Students’ Oral English Communication Skills. International Journal of Business & Society, 21(3). https://doi.org/10.33736/ijbs.3345.2020
Veluvali, P., & Surisetti, J. (2022). Learning Management System for Greater Learner Engagement in Higher Education - A Review. Higher Education for the Future, 9(1), 107-121. DOI: 10.1177/23476311211049855
Wahyurianto, I. (2018). Using group discussion to improve students’ speaking fluency. Journal of English for Academic & Specific Purposes, 1(1). DOI: 10.18860/jeasp.v1i1.5242
Wang, A. I., & Tahir, R. (2020). The effect of using Kahoot! for learning - A literature review. Computers & Education, 149. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2020.103818
Wen, M. N. Y., & Aziz, A. A. (2022). The Use of Quizizz as an Online Teaching and Learning Assessment tool in an ESL Classroom: A Systematic Literature Review. International Journal of Academic Research in Progresssive Education and Development, 1191), 1076-1094. http://dx.doi.org/10.6007/IJARPED/v11-i1/11929
World Health Organisation. (2020, April 23). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report -94. https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200423-sitrep-94-covid-19.pdf
Yusuf, M., Syahid, A., & Mirza, A. A. (2022). An Analysis of Speaking Problems in Online English Presentation during COVID-19 Pandemic. Lingua: Jurnal Pendidikan Bahasa, 18(1). https://doi.org/10.34005/lingua.v18i01.1798
Zhao, Y., & Watterston, J. (2021). The changes we need: Education post COVID-19. Journal of Educational Change, 22, 3-12.
Published
2024-03-01
How to Cite
MOHD FAUZI, Nur Aisyah Aqilah; ZAINAL SHAH, Norshima; SAHOL HAMID, Norashikin. Factors from Academics that Affect Student Learning in an Online Educational Setting. Asian Journal of Research in Education and Social Sciences, [S.l.], v. 6, n. 1, p. 104-118, mar. 2024. Available at: <https://myjms.mohe.gov.my/index.php/ajress/article/view/25960>. Date accessed: 19 may 2024.
Section
English Section