Misbehaviour in Managing Scholarly Publication among Academic Staffs

  • Mohd Amzari Tumiran Academy of Contemporary Islamic Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA
  • Nasharuddin Mohammad


Scholarly publication entails the dissemination of academic and scientific works through publication in specialised journals or books. However, misbehaviour in scholarly publication among academic staff may occur. Misbehaviour in scholarly publication management refers to actions taken by academics that violate ethical, academic, or professional standards during the research material publishing process. The objective of this study is to review misbehaviour in managing scholarly publications among academic staffs. This study identifies and examines textual material pertaining to the issue found in academic literature and publicly accessible reports. This study indicates several misbehaviours in managing scholarly publication among academic staff, namely: (a) plagiarism; (b) falsification of research data; (c) failure to adhere to ethical standards; (d) self-plagiarism; (e) gift authorship; (f) scholarly publication sabotage; (g) engaging in predatory journals; and (h) predatory (corresponding) author. In conclusion, this study suggests that these misbehaviours are substantial issues that weaken the integrity and credibility of the academic publishing sector. Future research should focus on many aspects of misbehaviour in the management of scholarly publications among academic staff.


Abad-García, M. (2019). Plagiarism and predatory journals: A threat to scientific integrity. Anales de Pediatría, 90(1), 57.e1-57.e8. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ANPEDE.2018.11.006
Alehegn, A., & Diale, B. M. (2021). Academic staff practices and challenges of publishing. International Journal of African Higher Education, 8(1), 27-42. https://doi.org/10.6017/IJAHE.V8I1.13375
Anson, C., Hall, S., Pemberton, M., & Moskovitz, C. (2020). Reuse in STEM research writing. Aila Review, 33, 120-135. https://doi.org/10.1075/aila.00033.ans
Anthony, M. (2015). Predatory journals. Home Healthcare Now, 33(2), 65-66. https://doi.org/10.1097/NHH.0000000000000186
Ayodele, F. O., Yao, L., & Haron, H. (2019). Promoting ethics and integrity in management academic research: Retraction initiative. Science and Engineering Ethics, 25, 357-382. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11948-017-9941-z
Bansal, B. (2022). Exploring the knowledge and acceptance of reputed authorship criteria: A pilot study among medical researchers in India. MedRxiv. https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.06.10.22276195
Bassi, R., Bucci, E., Calogero, R., Carninci, P., Ciliberto, G., Conte, P., Luca, M., Corbellini, G., Giordano, A., Marchionni, L., Giordano, G., Parini, A., & Sbardella, G. (2019). Look for methods, not conclusions. Cell Death & Disease, 10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-019-2179-8
Betz, C. (2016). Authors beware: Open access predatory journals. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 31(3), 233-234. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pedn.2016.02.006
Brantley, S. (2022). Student-created media: Designing research, learning and skill-building experiences. Public Services Quarterly, 18, 200-201. https://doi.org/10.1080/15228959.2022.2085426.
Burdine, L. K., de Castro Maymone, M. B., & Vashi, N. A. (2019). Text recycling: Self-plagiarism in scientific writing. International Journal of Women's Dermatology, 5(2), 134-136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijwd.2018.10.002
Burger, M. C. (2020). Caught between a ghost and a gift: Navigating authorship issues. SA Orthopaedic Journal, 19(3), 122-124. http://doi.org/10.17159/2309-8309/2020/v19n3a0
Cartwright, V. A. (2016). Authors beware! The rise of the predatory publisher. Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology, 44(8), 666-668. https://doi.org/10.1111/ceo.12836
Choi, H. W., Choi, Y. J., & Kim, S. (2019). Compliance of “Principles of transparency and best practice in scholarly publishing” in academic society published journals. Science Editing, 6(6), 112-121. https://doi.org/10.6087/kcse.171
Choi, Y. J., Choi, H. W., & Kim, S. (2020). Compliance of “Principles of transparency and best practice in scholarly publishing” in Korean academic society-published journals listed in Journal Citation Reports. Science Editing, 7(7), 24-33. https://doi.org/10.6087/kcse.186
Choudhary, M., & Kurien, N. (2019). Predatory journals: A threat to evidence-based science. Indian Journal of Health Sciences and Biomedical Research (KLEU), 12(1), 12-14. https://doi.org/10.4103/kleuhsj.kleuhsj_146_18
Cooke, S. J., Young, N., Donaldson, M. R., Nyboer, E. A., Roche, D. G., Madliger, C. L., Lennox, R. J., Chapman, J. M., Faulkes, Z.,& Bennett, J. R. (2021). Ten strategies for avoiding and overcoming authorship conflicts in academic publishing. Facets, 6(1), 1753-1770. https://doi.org/10.1139/facets-2021-0103
Cosentino, M., Marino, F., Haldar, C., & Maestroni, G. J. (2017). Honorary authors and unwitting: Personal experience with a journal from a publisher included in the Beall’s list of predatory publishers. In I. Glendinning, T. Foltynek, & J. Rybicka (Eds.), Plagiarism across europe and beyond 2017 (pp. 15-24). European Network for Academic Integrity.
Craig, R., Cox, A., Tourish, D., & Thorpe, A. (2020). Using retracted journal articles in psychology to understand research misconduct in the social sciences: What is to be done?. Research Policy, 49, 103930. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2020.103930
da Silva, J. A. T., Katavić, V., Dobránszki, J., Al-Khatib, A., & Bornemann-Cimenti, H. (2019). Establishing rules for ethicists and ethics organizations in academic publishing to avoid conflicts of interest, favoritism, cronyism and nepotism. KOME: An International Journal of Pure Communication Inquiry, 7(1), 110-125. https://doi.org/10.17646/KOME.75698.87
Dal-Ré, R., Bouter, L., Cuijpers, P., Gluud, C., & Holm, S. (2020). Should research misconduct be criminalized?. Research Ethics, 16, 1 - 12. https://doi.org/10.1177/1747016119898400
De Maio, C., Dixon, K., & Yeo, S. (2019). Academic staff responses to student plagiarism in universities: A literature review from 1990 to 2019. Issues in Educational Research, 29(4), 1131-1142
Dhillon, P. (2021). How to be a good peer reviewer of scientific manuscripts. The FEBS Journal, 288. https://doi.org/10.1111/febs.15705
Dohe, K., Pappas, E., & Emmelhainz, C. (2019). Delay, distract, defer: Addressing sabotage in the academic library. The Maintainers III Conference. https://doi.org/10.13016/q4rs-zis9
Facina, G., Cavalcante, F.P., Paulinelli, R.R., & Vieira, R.A. (2020). Plagiarism in scientific publications. Mastology, 30, e20200054. https://doi.org/10.29289/25945394202020200054
Fontanarosa, P. B. (2020). Types of articles. In AMA Manual of Style Committee (Eds.), AMA manual of style: A guide for authors and editors (11th ed.) (pp. 1-12). Oxford Academic https://doi.org/10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0001
Frandsen, T. F. (2022). Authors publishing repeatedly in predatory journals: An analysis of Scopus articles. Learned Publishing, 35(4), 598-604. https://doi.org/10.1002/leap.1489
Gefen, D. (2019). A post-positivist answering back: Part 2: A demo in r of the importance of enabling replication in PLS and LISREL. Data Base, 50, 12-37. https://doi.org/10.1145/3353401.3353404
Gelman, A., & Guzey, A. (2020). Statistics as squid ink: How prominent researchers can get away with misrepresenting data. Chance, 33, 25-27. https://doi.org/10.1080/09332480.2020.1754069
Gopalakrishna, G., Ter Riet, G., Vink, G., Stoop, I., Wicherts, J. M., & Bouter, L. M. (2022). Prevalence of questionable research practices, research misconduct and their potential explanatory factors: A survey among academic researchers in The Netherlands. PLoS ONE, 17(2), e0263023. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0263023
Grech, V. (2019). Write a Scientific Paper (WASP): Academic hoax and fraud. Early Human Development, 129, 87-89 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2018.12.005
Gupta, L., Tariq, J., Yessirkepov, M., Zimba, O., Misra, D. P., Agarwal, V., & Gasparyan, A. Y. (2021). Plagiarism in non-anglophone countries: A cross-sectional survey of researchers and journal editors. Journal of Korean Medical Science, 36(39), e247. https://doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2021.36.e247
Hall, J., & Martin, B. (2019). Towards a taxonomy of research misconduct: The case of business school research. Research Policy. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.RESPOL.2018.03.006
Holtfreter, K., Reisig, M. D., Pratt, T. C., & Mays, R. D. (2020). The perceived causes of research misconduct among faculty members in the natural, social, and applied sciences. Studies in Higher Education, 45(11), 2162-2174. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2019.1593352
Horbach, S. S., & Halffman, W. W. (2019). The extent and causes of academic text recycling or ‘self-plagiarism’. Research Policy, 48(2), 492-502. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.RESPOL.2017.09.004
Johal, J., Ward, R., Gielecki, J., Walocha, J., Natsis, K., Tubbs, R. S., & Loukas, M. (2017). Beware of the predatory science journal: A potential threat to the integrity of medical research. Clinical Anatomy, 30(6), 767-773. https://doi.org/10.1002/ca.22899
Kandil, M. (2022). Honorary authorship in biomedical journals: The endless story. Qeios. https://doi.org/10.32388/uubxg8.3
Kang, E., & Hwang, H. J. (2020). The consequences of data fabrication and falsification among researchers. Journal of Research and Publication Ethics, 1(2), 7-10. http://doi.org/10.15722/jrpe.1.2.202009.7
Kendall, G. (2021). Beall's legacy in the battle against predatory publishers. Learned Publishing, 34(3), 379-388. https://doi.org/10.1002/leap.1374
Kohli, C. (2019). Plagiarism in healthcare education. International Journal of Healthcare Education & Medical Informatics, 6(1), 1-2. https://doi.org/10.24321/2455.9199.201901
Kokiwar, P. R., Gaiki, V. V., & Reddy, A. S. (2020). Prevalence and patterns of research misconduct among medical college faculties. MRIMS Journal of Health Sciences, 8(2), 35-39. https://doi.org/10.4103/2321-7006.301997
Krokoscz, M. (2021). Plagiarism in articles published in journals indexed in the Scientific Periodicals Electronic Library (SPELL): A comparative analysis between 2013 and 2018. International Journal for Educational Integrity, 17, 1-22. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40979-020-00063-5
Kuleshova, A. V., Chekhovich, Y. V., & Belenkaya, O. S. (2019). Walking the razor’s edge: How to avoid self-plagiarism when you recycle your texts. Science Editor and Publisher, 4(1-2), 45-51. https://doi.org/10.24069/2542-0267-2019-1-2-45-51
Leydesdorff, L., Fyfe, A., & Wouters, P. (2021). Scholarly communication and the construction of parameters of relevance. Scientometrics, 126(1), 309-325. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-020-03709-1
Lin, W. Y. C. (2020). Self-plagiarism in academic journal articles: From the perspectives of international editors-in-chief in editorial and COPE case. Scientometrics, 123(1), 299-319. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-020-03373-0
Mathew, R. P., & Patel, V. (2022). Predatory journals-The power of the predator versus the integrity of the honest. Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology, 51(5), 740-746. https://doi.org/10.1067/j.cpradiol.2021.07.005
Mavrogenis, A., Quaile, A., & Scarlat, M. (2020). The good, the bad and the rude peer-review. International Orthopaedics, 44, 413-415. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00264-020-04504-1
McQuarrie, F. A., Kondra, A. Z., & Lamertz, K. (2020). Do tenure and promotion policies discourage publications in predatory journals?. Journal of Scholarly Publishing, 51(3), 165-181. https://doi.org/10.3138/jsp.51.3.01
Meeks, S. (2020). Strong and ethical scholarly writing for multidisciplinary audiences. Innovation in Aging, 4, 858-858. https://doi.org/10.1093/geroni/igaa057.3161
Mehta, P., & Mukherjee, S. (2022). Plagiarism and its repercussions: A primer on responsible scientific writing. Central Asian Journal of Medical Hypotheses and Ethics, 3(1), 52-62. https://doi.org/10.47316/cajmhe.2022.3.1.05
Melo, L., Soto-Ardila, L. M., Luengo, R., Carvalho, J. L. (2020). Ideas about plagiarism and self-plagiarism with university professors and researchers: A case study with WebQDA. In A. Costa, L. Reis, & A. Moreira (Eds.), Computer supported qualitative research (WCQR 2019): Advances in intelligent systems and computing (Vol. 1068, pp. 206-215). Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-31787-4_17
Memon, A., & Rathore, F. (2021). The rising menace of scholarly black-market: Challenges and solutions for improving research in low- and middle-income countries. Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, 71(6), 1523-1526 .
Navalta, J., Stone, W., & Lyons, T. (2019). Ethical issues relating to scientific discovery in exercise science. International Journal of Exercise Science, 12(1), 1-8.
Nurunnabi, M., & Hossain, M. A. (2019). Data falsification and question on academic integrity. Accountability in Research, 26(2), 108-122. https://doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2018.1564664
Paruzel-Czachura, M., Baran, L., & Spendel, Z. (2021). Publish or be ethical? Publishing pressure and scientific misconduct in research. Research Ethics, 17(3), 375-397. https://doi.org/10.1177/1747016120980562
Poutoglidou, F., Stavrakas, M., Tsetsos, N., Poutoglidis, A., Tsentemeidou, A., Fyrmpas, G., & Karkos, P. D. (2022). Fraud and deceit in medical research: Insights and current perspectives. Voices in Bioethics, 8. https://doi.org/10.52214/vib.v8i.8940
Rajaram, S. (2021). Reflections on authorship. Indian Journal of Gynecologic Oncology, 19, 68. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40944-021-00568-y
Reisig, M. D., Holtfreter, K., & Berzofsky, M. E. (2020). Assessing the perceived prevalence of research fraud among faculty at research-intensive universities in the USA. Accountability in Research, 27(7), 457-475. https://doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2020.1772060
Saleem, H., & Iqbal, A. (2022). The scam of the research world: The predatory practices. Anaesthesia, Pain & Intensive Care, 26(4), 430-432. https://doi.org/10.35975/apic.v26i4.1943.
Sarfraz, Z., Sarfraz, A., Anwer, A., Nadeem, Z., Bano, S., & Tareen, S. (2020). Predatory journals: A literature review. Pakistan Journal of Surgery and Medicine, 1(1), 42-51. https://doi.org/10.37978/pjsm.v1i1.102
Severin, A., & Low, N. (2019). Readers beware! Predatory journals are infiltrating citation databases. International Journal of Public Health, 64, 1123-1124. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-019-01284-3
Shankar, N., Selvakumar, J., Loo, J., Ohn, M., Chua, S., Dhandapani, A., Simiyon, M., & Raja, J. (2021). What can be found in the spam folder? A self-study from junior researchers in psychiatry. BJPsych Open, 7, S250-S251. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2021.671
Shin, S. (2019). Plagiarism. Journal of Periodontal & Implant Science, 49, 59. https://doi.org/10.5051/jpis.2019.49.2.59
Shrestha, J. (2020). Authors beware! Publishing in predatory journals is harmful. Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 3(2), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.3126/janr.v3i2.32293
Shrestha, J., Subedi, S., & Timsina, K. (2020). Predatory publishing: A threat to the credibility of science. Nepal Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 3(1), 7-14. https://doi.org/10.3126/njmr.v3i1.30214
Shrestha, J., Subedi, S., Shokati, B., & Chaudhary, A. (2019). Predatory journals: A threat to scholarly publishing. Journal of Education and Research, 8(1), 89-101. https://doi.org/10.3126/jer.v8i1.25482
Smith, E., Williams-Jones, B., Master, Z., Larivière, V., Sugimoto, C. R., Paul-Hus, A., Shi, M., & Resnik, D. B. (2020). Misconduct and misbehavior related to authorship disagreements in collaborative science. Science and Engineering Ethics, 26, 1967-1993. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11948-019-00112-4
Stein, C. (2020). Is intentional publishing in predatory journals a form of scientific misconduct?. South African Journal of Bioethics and Law, 13(1), 57-61. https://doi.org/10.7196/SAJBL.2020.V13I1.00708
Strinzel, M., Severin, A., Milzow, K., & Egger, M. (2019). Blacklists and whitelists to tackle predatory publishing: A cross-sectional comparison and thematic analysis. mBio, 10(3). https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00411-19
Summer-Gafford, G., Jang, H., & Scruth, E. (2019). Publication: Creating a culture where ethical practices are the norm. Clinical Nurse Specialist. https://doi.org/10.1097/NUR.0000000000000455
Thomas, A. (2019). Plagiarism in South African management journals: A follow-up study. South African Journal of Science, 115(5-6), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.17159/SAJS.2019/5723
Varghese, J., & Jacob, M. (2022). Gift authorship: Look the gift horse in the mouth. Indian Journal of Medical Ethics, 7(3), 196-202. https://doi.org/10.20529/ijme.2022.028
Varghese, J., & Jacob, M. O. L. L. Y. (2022). Gift authorship: Look the gift horse in the mouth. Indian Journal of Medical Ethics, 7(3), 196-202. https://doi.org/10.20529/ijme.2022.028
Wallace, E., Hogan, M., Noone, C., & Groarke, J. (2019). Investigating components and causes of sabotage by academics using collective intelligence analysis. Studies in Higher Education, 44, 2113 - 2131. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2018.1477128
Wildemuth, B. (2020). The Types of publications read by finnish scholars vary with their purposes for reading. Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, 15, 229-232. https://doi.org/10.18438/eblip29667
Woldu, M. G. (2019). Unpacking research ethical stands and practices in academic institutions: A case study of a university from Ethiopia. Cogent Social Sciences, 5(1), 1633776. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311886.2019.1633776
Wright, J., Avouris, A., Frost, M., & Hoffmann, S. (2022). Supporting academic freedom as a human right: Challenges and solutions in academic publishing. The International Journal of Human Rights, 26, 1741-1760. https://doi.org/10.1080/13642987.2022.2088520
Yeo-Teh, N. S. L., & Tang, B. L. (2021). Wilfully submitting to and publishing in predatory journals-a covert form of research misconduct?. Biochemia Medica, 31(3), 030201. https://doi.org/10.11613/BM.2021.030201
Yoon, S. W., Han, H., Han, C. S. H., & Chai, D. S. (2021). The power of ethics and standards when the scholarly system fails. Human Resource Development Review, 20(2), 136-142. https://doi.org/10.1177/15344843211006795
Zimba, O., & Gasparyan, A. (2021). Plagiarism detection and prevention: a primer for researchers. Reumatologia, 59, 132-137. https://doi.org/10.5114/reum.2021.105974
How to Cite
TUMIRAN, Mohd Amzari; MOHAMMAD, Nasharuddin. Misbehaviour in Managing Scholarly Publication among Academic Staffs. Asian Journal of Research in Education and Social Sciences, [S.l.], v. 6, n. 1, p. 189-201, mar. 2024. Available at: <https://myjms.mohe.gov.my/index.php/ajress/article/view/25540>. Date accessed: 19 may 2024.
English Section