Exploring Mothers’ Parenting Styles and Its Impact Towards Young Children’s Self-Esteem

  • Nur Najah Ahmad Tarmizi
  • Aishah Hanim Abd Karim


Parents would normally model the behaviors of their parents when they raise their own children. Nonetheless, there are some parents who would apply other approaches when dealing with their children, which often results in indecisiveness when choosing the best parenting styles (Brown & Iyengar, 2008). The current study aims to explore the parenting styles of mothers and the self-esteem of their young children aged 3 to 5 years old. The study adopted a qualitative research method and was conducted through a phenomenological approach in order to study the experience of the mothers and their children. The three participants were interviewed through an online platform as the medium of communication using semi-structured interview questions. The data was then analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The study has explored the parenting characteristics of the mothers and illustrated an authoritative parenting style across the participants. Besides that, the characteristics of children with high self-esteem were explored within the data through the interview answered by the parents. The findings of this study can be beneficial in educating young parents who may not have the necessary skills or knowledge in child-rearing.


Arifiyanti, N. (2019). Relationship between Authoritative Parenting Style and Preschools
Prosocial Behavior. Jurnal Obsesi: Jurnal Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini, 3(2), 311-319.
Baumrind, D. (2005). Patterns of parental authority and adolescent autonomy. New directions
for child and adolescent development, 2005(108), 61-69.
Beato, A., Pereira, A. I., Barros, L., & Muris, P. (2016). The relationship between different
parenting typologies in fathers and mothers and children’s anxiety. Journal of Child
and Family Studies, 25(5), 1691-1701.
Bogdan, R. C., & Biklen, S. K. (2007). Qualitative research for education: An introduction to
theories and methods (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education.
Brummelman, E., Nelemans, S. A., Thomaes, S., & Orobio de Castro, B. (2017). When parents’ praise inflates, children's self‐esteem deflates. Child development, 88(6), 1799-1809.
Brown, L., & Iyengar, S. (2008). Parenting styles: The impact on student achievement. Marriage & Family Review, 43(1-2), 14–38.
Connell, S. L., Lauricella, A. R., & Wartella, E. (2015). Parental co-use of media technology with their young children in the USA. Journal of Children and Media, 9(1), 5-21.
Coppersmith S.The antecedent of self esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
1967;65: 95–167.
Darcy, D. (2022). Your Child's Self-Esteem (for Parents) - Nemours KidsHealth. Retrieved 30 January 2022, from https://kidshealth.org/en/parents/self-esteem.html
Darling, N. (1999). Parenting style and its correlates (pp. 1-3). Champaign: ERIC
Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, University of Illinois.
Ebrahimi, L., Amiri, M., Mohamadlou, M., & Rezapur, R. (2017). Attachment styles, parenting styles, and depression. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 15(5), 1064-1068.
García, O. F., Serra, E., Zacarés, J. J., & García, F. (2018). Parenting styles and short-and long-term socialization outcomes: A study among Spanish adolescents and older adults. Psychosocial Intervention, 27(3), 153-161.
Garcia, Q. P., & Santiago, A. B. B. (2017). Parenting styles as correlates to self-esteem of
underprivileged adolescents: Basis for a proposed parenting skills program. Parenting,
2(5), 27-35.
Goldberg, H., & Goldberg, T. (2000). Counseling Today’s Family (3rd ed.). Brooks.
Huver, R. M., Otten, R., De Vries, H., & Engels, R. C. (2010). Personality and parenting style
in parents of adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 33(3), 395-402.
Jadon, P. S., & Tripathi, S. (2017). Effect of authoritarian parenting style on self-esteem of the child: A systematic review. International Journal of Advanced Research and Innovative Ideas, 3, 909–913.
Keizer, R., Helmerhorst, K. O., & van Rijn-van Gelderen, L. (2019). Perceived quality of the
mother–adolescent and father–adolescent attachment relationship and adolescents’
self-esteem. Journal of youth and adolescence, 48(6), 1203-1217.
Lund, I., & Scheffels, J. (2018). 15-year-old tobacco and alcohol abstainers in a drier generation: Characteristics and lifestyle factors in a Norwegian cross-sectional sample. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. https:// doi.org/10.1177/1403494818770301
Martinez, I., Garcia, F., Veiga, F., Garcia, O. F., Rodrigues, Y., & Serra, E. (2020). Parenting styles, internalization of values and self-esteem: A cross-cultural study in Spain, Portugal and Brazil. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(7), 2370.
Mehrabi, S. H. (2004). Compare rates of mental disorders in adolescent girls due to child-
rearing practices. Parents in Jiroft High School [Master’s thesis]. Faculty of
Psychology and Educational Sciences, University Tabatabai.
Moghaddam, M. F., Validad, A., Rakhshani, T., & Assareh, M. (2017). Child self-esteem and
different parenting styles of mothers: a cross-sectional study. Archives of Psychiatry
and Psychotherapy, 19(1), 37-42.
Nikoogoftar, M., & Seghatoleslam, S. (2015). The role of parenting styles in predicting adolescent behavioral and emotional problems.
Özgür, H. (2016). The relationship between Internet parenting styles and Internet usage of
children and adolescents. Computers in Human Behavior, 60, 411-424.
Pavicevic, M. S., & Zivkovic, T. L. Parenting Styles as Predictors of Adolescents’ Self-
Efficacy and Subjective Well-Being. Stanisław Juszczyk, 29.
Pinquart, M., & Gerke, D. C. (2019). Associations of parenting styles with self-esteem in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 28(8), 2017-2035.
Santrock, J. W. (2017). Life-span development (16th Ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Sigelman, C. K., & Rider, E. A. (2009). Life-span human development (6th ed.).
Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.
Silk, J. S., Morris, A. S., Kanaya, T., & Steinberg, L. (2003). Psychological control and
autonomy granting: Opposite ends of a continuum or distinct constructs? Journal of
research on adolescence, 13(1), 113-128.
Theresya, J., Latifah, M., & Hernawati, N. (2018). The effect of parenting style, self-efficacy, and self regulated learning on adolescents’ academic achievement. Journal of Child Development Studies, 3(1), 28-43.
Yun, B. X., Thing, T. S., & Hsoon, N. C. (2019). A quantitative study of relationship between
parenting style and adolescent’s self-esteem. Advances in Social Science, Education
and Humanities Research, 304, 441-446.
How to Cite
AHMAD TARMIZI, Nur Najah; ABD KARIM, Aishah Hanim. Exploring Mothers’ Parenting Styles and Its Impact Towards Young Children’s Self-Esteem. Asian Journal of Research in Education and Social Sciences, [S.l.], v. 4, n. 2, p. 9-19, june 2022. Available at: <https://myjms.mohe.gov.my/index.php/ajress/article/view/18345>. Date accessed: 03 oct. 2023.