Content Knowledge Mastery in K to 12 Statistics and Probability: The Effectiveness of Teachers' Training
This action research explores the effectiveness of the conducted teachers' training in enhancing the content knowledge in statistics and probability. Randomly selected 77 secondary mathematics teachers' prior knowledge through a researcher-made test revealed that they manifest beginning proficiency in areas like basic concepts in probability, fundamental counting principles, and solving problems involving probability. Exposure to three-day teachers' training made a statistically significant increase in knowledge mastery with the highest improvement in the understanding of basic concepts in probability and fundamental counting principles. The majority of the teachers have established the definition of the experiment, sample space, and mutually exclusive events and have mastered the rule on the probability of outcomes in the sample space. The training has helped them better understand empirical probability. Data further showed that the teachers' difficulties are consistently evident in finding the probability of independent events and solving conditional probabilities when given frequency distribution tables. Even after the training, they had a misconception that probability values are always positive. Teachers confirmed that their poor preparation in teaching statistics and probability is due to the lack of textbooks, references, or any related reading materials, and limited training/seminars or supplemental courses along this field. However, the results indicated that the training is effective in enhancing the content knowledge mastery of the teachers. The development of a module is recommended to cover the lack of textbooks and references to improve content knowledge mastery and unlock misconceptions in the teaching of K to 12 Statistics and Probability.
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