Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of E-Learning Environment During Covid-19 Pandemic Within Malaysian Private Institutions: From Qs Lecturers and Students Perspectives

  • Mazura Mahdzir
  • Sharifah Mazlina Syed Khuzzan
  • Yap Kar Xin
  • Nafisah Ya’cob@Ya’acob
  • Nik Fatma Arisya Nik Yahya


The outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic has caused huge impacts worldwide, and Malaysia has not been an exception.  The impact of the pandemic was also felt by the educational segments in Malaysia. All layers of education, be it the pre-schoolers, primary, secondary well as tertiary students felt the impact.  These education institutions were closed for several months during the first Malaysian Movement Control Order (MCO) 1.0. The teaching could only be continued by shifting the method towards online learning. Previous research found that one of the main reasons for high dropout rates of online classes is because online instructional design and delivery does not account for the distribution of diverse characteristics of online students. Therefore, this research tries to focus on finding ways to improve the new learning environment especially for Quantity Surveying courses which can be mentioned as technical courses or STEM courses. To achieve this aim, this paper has set the primary objective, which is to identify the factors that should be taken into consideration when designing an e-learning environment. A quantitative method was adopted to collect the primary data of the research through questionnaires. There were a total of 79 respondents involved in the Quantity Surveying courses. The method of analysis adopted for the quantitative data was the frequency analysis and descriptive analysis (using the IBM SPSS Statistic version 26). Based on the findings, it was found that a two-way interaction between student-lecturer, a clear course structure and organisation and designing the course content in an alive and interesting way placed in the first three rankings by the respondents.  Therefore, by highlighting these findings, it is hoped that the lecturer can have a deeper insight into the students’ need to design an effective and efficient online learning environment, especially during the Covid-19 pandemic crisis.


BlackBoard (2020) Student and Instructor Usage of Blackboard Ally Increase as Remote Learning Accelerates - May 19, 2020, BlackBoard. Available at: https://press.blackboard.com/2020-05-19-Student-and-Instructor-Usage-of-Blackboard- Ally-Increase-as-Remote-Learning-Accelerates (Accessed: 28 June 2020).
Bengtsson, M. (2016) ‘How to plan and perform a qualitative study using content analysis’, NursingPlus Open. Elsevier Ltd, 2, 8–14. doi: 10.1016/j.npls.2016.01.001
Cho, M.-H. and Cho, Y. (2016) ‘Online Instructors’ Use of Scaffolding Strategies to Promote Interactions: A Scale Development Study’, International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 17(6), 109–120.
Dabbagh, N. (2007) ‘The Online Learner: Characteristics and Pedagogical Implications– CITE Journal’, Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 7(3), 217–226.
Elfaki, N. K., Abdulraheem, I. and Abdulrahim, R. (2019) ‘Impact-of-Elearning-Vs- Traditional-Learning-on-Students-Performance-and-Attitude’, International Journal of Medical Research & Health Sciences, 8(10), 76–82.
Fahmeeda, A. A. and Long, C. M. (2015) ‘Pharmaceutical Education Review of e- learning Practice at the Tertiary Education level in Malaysia’, Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, 49(4), 248–257. doi: 10.5530/ijper.49.4.2.
Ferreira, D. and Maclean, G. R. (2017) ‘Andragogy in the 21st century: Applying the Assumptions of Adult Learning Online’, Language Research Bulletin, 32, ICU, Tokyo, 32, 11–19. doi: 10.13140/RG.2.1.2402.0009.
Gillett-Swan, J. (2017) ‘The Challenges of Online Learning Supporting and Engaging the Isolated Learner’, Journal of Learning Design, 10(1), 20–30. doi: 10.5204/jld.v9i3.293.
Gonzalez, M. and Moore, N. (2020) ‘A Comparison of Faculty and Graduate Students’ Perceptions of Engaging Online Courses: A Mixed-Method Study’, International Journal of Educational Methodology, 6(1), 223–236. doi: 10.12973/ijem.6.1.223.
Gray, J. A. and DiLoreto, M. (2016) ‘The Effects of Student Engagement, Student Satisfaction, and Perceived Learning in Online Learning Environments’, NCPEA International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation, 11(1), 89–119.
Hew, K. F., Cheung, W. S. and Ng, C. S. . (2010) ‘Student contribution in asynchronous online discussion: a review of the research and empirical exploration’, Instructional Science, 38(6), 571–606.
Kintu, M. J., Zhu, C. and Kagambe, E. (2017) ‘Blended learning effectiveness: the relationship between student characteristics, design features and outcomes’, International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 14(7), 1–20. doi: 10.1186/s41239-017-0043-4.
Lim, C. (2020) ‘Commentary: COVID-19’s education revolution - where going digital is just half the battle - CNA’, Channel News Asia. Available at: https://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/commentary/covid-19-coronavirus-education- digital-revolution-transformation-12650974 (Accessed: 29 June 2020).
Martin, F. and Bolliger, D. U. (2018) ‘Engagement Matters: Student Perceptions on the Importance of Engagement Strategies in the Online Learning Environment’, Learning Journal, 22(1), 205–222. doi: 10.24059/olj.v22i1.1092.
Moore, J. (2014) ‘Effects of Online Interaction and Instructor Presence on Students’ Satisfaction and Success with Online Undergraduate Public Relations Courses’, ournalism & Mass Communication Educator, 69(3), 1–15. doi: 10.1177/1077695814536398
Mugahed Al-Rahmi, W., Alias, N., Othman, M. S., Alzahrani, A. I., Alfarraj, O., Saged, A. A., & Rahman, N. S. A. (2018) ‘Use of E-Learning by University Students in Malaysian Higher Educational Institutions: A Case in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia’, IEEE Access, 6. doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2802325.
Nehme, M. (2010). ‘E-learning and Students ’ Motivation’, Legal education review, 20(1), 223–239.
Orlando, J., & Attard, C. (2015). ‘Digital natives come of age: The reality of today’s early career teachers using mobile devices to teach mathematics’, Mathematics Education Research Journal, 28, pp. 107–121. doi: 10.1007/s13394-015-0159-6.
Palaniyammal, R. and Shanmugam, P. N. (2018) ‘Interactive Teaching Methods and Learning Style’, Journal of Applied and Advanced Research, 3(1), p. 7. doi: 10.21839/jaar.2018.v3is1.157.
Rajendran, V., Venkatagari, S. and Manchireddy, S. (2017) ‘Teaching and Learning Methodologies for Improving Students’ Performance in Academics’, International Journal of Learning and Teaching, 9(4), 437–444. doi: 10.18844/ijlt.v9i4.1843.
Sangra, A., Vlachopoulos, D. and Cabrera, N. (2012) ‘Building an inclusive definition of e-learning: An approach to the conceptual framework’, The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 13(2), 145–159.
Smith, E. L. (2015) ‘Selected Sampling | Global Rangelands’, Selected Sampling | Global Rangelands, II(2), 2–3.
Tan, L. N. (2020) ‘Online learning the new normal in education’, The Star, 16 April. Available at: https://www.thestar.com.my/opinion/letters/2020/04/16/online-learning- the-new-normal-in-education.
Vanslambrouck, S., Zhu, C., Lombaerts, K., Pynoo, B., & Tondeur, J. (2017).‘Adult Learner Characteristics as Predictors of Performance, Satisfaction and Intent-to-Persist in Online and Blended Environments - ProQuest’, in International Conference on e-Learning. United Kingdom, Kidmore End: Academic Conferences International Limited, 221–229.
Weiser, O., Blau, I. and Eshet-Alkalai, Y. (2018) ‘How do medium naturalness, teaching-learning interactions and Students’ personality traits affect participation in synchronous E-learning?’, Internet and Higher Education. Elsevier, 37, 40–51. doi: 10.1016/j.iheduc.2018.01.001.
Yockey, R. D. (2016) ‘Reliability (as Measured by Coefficient Alpha)’, in SPSS Demystified. A Step-by-Step Guide to Successful Data Analysis. 2nd edn. New York, USA: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, 49–57.
How to Cite
MAHDZIR, Mazura et al. Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of E-Learning Environment During Covid-19 Pandemic Within Malaysian Private Institutions: From Qs Lecturers and Students Perspectives. Asian Journal of Research in Education and Social Sciences, [S.l.], v. 3, n. 3, p. 54-72, sep. 2021. Available at: <https://myjms.mohe.gov.my/index.php/ajress/article/view/15098>. Date accessed: 21 apr. 2024.