Development and Validation of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Questionnaire on the Consumption of Gum Arabic among Users in Malaysia
Globally, the Gum Arabic (GA) market has been expected to grow, particularly due to its multi-functionality and health benefits. Various clinical studies and functional properties studies of GA have been conducted. But the study from users' insight is scarce, resulting in the inadequacy of validated questionnaire of knowledge, attitude and practice of users' GA consumption. Hence, this study aimed to validate the questionnaire focusing on knowledge, attitude and practice of GA consumption among Malaysian users. A total of 100 respondents completed an online self-administered questionnaire. Construct validity was assessed using exploratory factor analysis with principal factoring axis and oblique rotation. Based on the factor analysis output, only factor loading of 0.5 and higher were considered. The number of factors retained was then assessed through the scree plot and parallel analysis. Finally, out of 43 items, 20 items remained as validated and reliable questions. The original Knowledge construct is represented separately as "objective knowledge" (OK) and "subjective knowledge" (SK). Attitude and practice remained as one factor each. All constructs have high reliability of Cronbach's Alpha ranging from 0.875 to 0.959. The result obtained has indicated that the instrument developed has high validity and reliability. The findings are essential and useful assessment tool to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice of GA consumption among users in Malaysia.
Ahmed, A. A. (2018). Health benefits of gum arabic and medical use. In Gum Arabic: Structure, Properties, Application and Economics.
Alhomoud, F. K., Basil, M., & Bondarev, A. (2016). Knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) relating to dietary supplements among health sciences and non-health sciences students in one of the universities of United Arab Emirates (UAE). Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, 10(9).
Alkarib, S. Y., Saeed, A. M., Khalid, S. A., Groun, E. A., & Ghalib, M. B. (2017). Gum Arabic role in high blood pressure among patients with stage III chronic kidney disease. Journal of Pharmacology & Clinical Research, 1(4).
Awad, S. S., Rabah, A. A., Ali, H. I., & Mahmoud, T. E. (2018). Acacia seyal gums in Sudan: Ecology and economic contribution. In Gum Arabic: Structure, Properties, Application and Economics.
Balla, S. E. H., & Ismail, A. M. (2016). Impact of hemodialysis on serum zinc and copper level in CKD patients. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 6(4), 165-168.
Boateng, G. O., Neilands, T. B., Frongillo, E. A., Melgar-Quiñonez, H. R., and Young S. L. (2018). Best practices for developing and validating scales for health, social, and behavioral research: A primer. Front. Public Health, 6(149).
Bnuyan, I. A., Hindi, N. K. K., Jebur, M. H., & Mahdi, M. A., 2015. In vitro antimicrobial activity of gum Arabic (Al Manna and Tayebat) prebiotics against infectious pathogens. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 3(3), 77-85.
Brucks, M. (1985). The effects of product class knowledge on information search behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 12(1), 1.
Bulmer, M., Gibbs, J., & Hyman, L. (2006). The use of pre-existing survey questions: implications for data quality. Paper presented at The Conference on Quality in Survey Statistics, Cardiff.
Castillo, E. M. (2003). Patterns of dietary supplement use among active United States Marines (Doctoral Thesis).
Chomeya, R. (2010). Quality of psychology test between likert scale 5 and 6 points. Journal of Social Sciences, 6(3), 399–403.
Daoub, R. M. A., Elmubarak, A. H., Misran, M., Hassan, E. A., & Osman, M. E. (2016). Characterization and functional properties of some natural Acacia gums. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, 17(3), 241–249.
Durmaz, Y. (2014). The impact of psychological factors on consumer buying behavior and an empirical application in Turkey. Asian Social Science, 10(6), 194–204.
Fan, X., Lee, K. S., Frazier, S. K., Leannie, T, A., & Moser, D. K. (2014). The use of and perceptions about, dietary supplements among patients with heart failure. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 13(4), 311-319.
Flynn, L. R., & Goldsmith, R. E. (1999). A short, reliable measure of subjective knowledge. Journal of Business Research, 46(1), 57–66.
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2014). Multivariate Data Analysis. Pearson New International Edition.
Hassan, Z. A., Schattner, P., & Mazza, D. (2006). Doing a pilot study: Why is it essential. Malaysian Family Physician : The Official Journal of the Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia, 1(2-3), 70–73.
Hayduk, L.A., & Littvay, L. (2012). Should researchers use single indicators, best indicators, or multiple indicators in structural equation models? BMC Med Res Methodol, 12, 159.
House, L., Lusk, J., Jaeger, S., Traill, W. B., Moore, M., Valli, C., … Yee, W. M. S. (2004). Objective and subjective knowledge: Impacts on consumer demand for genetically modified foods in the United States and the European Union. AgBioForum, 7(3), 113–123.
IBM Corp. Released 2019. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 26.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.
Ishihara, J., Sobue, T., Yamamoto, S., Sasaki, S., Akabane, M., & Tsugane, S. (2001). Validity and reproducibility of a self-administered questionnaire to determine dietary supplement users among Japanese. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 55(5), 360–365.
Kaddam, L., Fadl-Elmula, I., Eisawi, O. A., Abdelrazig, H. A., Salih, M. A., Lang, F., & Saeed, A. M. (2017). Gum Arabic as novel anti-oxidant agent in sickle cell anemia, phase II trial. BMC Hematology, 17(1), 1–6.
Kaiser, H. F. (1977). An index of factorial simplicity. Psychometrika, 42(2), 277–295.
Karar, M. E., & Kuhnert, N. (2017). Herbal drugs from Sudan: Traditional uses and phytoconstituents. Pharmacognosy Reviews, 11(22), 83.
Karbownik, M. S., Paul, E., Nowicka, M., Nowicka, Z., Kowalczyk, R. P., Kowalczyk, E., & Pietras, T. (2019). Knowledge about dietary supplements and trust in advertising them: Development and validation of the questionnaires and preliminary results of the association between the constructs. PLoS ONE, 14(6).
Kotler, P., & Armstrong, G. (2016). Principles of Marketing (6th ed.).
Küster-Boluda & Vidal-Capilla, I.. (2017). Consumer attitudes in the election of functional foods. Spanish Journal of Marketing, 21(1), 65-70.
Losby, J., & Wetmore, A. (2012). Using likert scales in evaluation survey work. Retrieved March 20, 2020 from https://www.cdc.gov/dhdsp/pubs/docs/CB_February_14_2012.pdf
MacCallum, R. C., Widaman, K. F., Zhang, S., & Hong, S. (1999). Sample size in factor analysis. 4(1), 84-99.
Macias, F. Y., & Glasauer, P. (2014). Guidelines for assessing nutrition-related knowledge-attitude-practice. Retrieved March 20, 2020 from http://www.fao.org/docrep/019/i3545e/i3545e00.htm
Malaysia-Nutritional & Food. (2017). Retrieved March 20, 2020 from https://www.export.gov/article?id=Malaysia-Nutritional-and-Food-Supplements
Maskey, R., Fei, J., & Nguyen, H. O. (2018). Use of exploratory factor analysis in maritime research. Asian Journal of Shipping and Logistics, 34(2), 91–111.
Mehralian, G., Yousefi, N., Hashemian, F., & Maleksabet, H. (2014). Knowledge, attitude and practice of pharmacists regarding dietary supplements: A community pharmacy- based survey in Tehran. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 13(4), 1457–1465.
Mielmann, A., Steyn, F., Bothma, C., & Hugo, C. (2017). Consumers’ knowledge about and attitudes towards lucerne (Medicago sativa l.). Journal of Consumer Sciences, 2, 69–82.
Micro Market Monitor. (2015). Global Gum Arabic Market Analysis & Forecast (2014-2019). Retrieved March 20, 2020 from http://www.micromarketmonitor.com
Mohammed, A. M. E. (2017). Estimation of the active components in gum arabic collected from Western Sudan. International Journal of Science and Research, 6(3), 1262–1282.
National Pharmaceutical Regulatory Agency. (2019). Drug Registration Guidance Document (DRGD). Retrieved from https://www.npra.gov.my/easyarticles/images/users/1047/Drug-Registration-Guidance-Document-DRGD---Second-Edition-revised-January-2019.pdf
Pallant, J. (2016). SPSS Survival Manual : A Step by Step Guide to Data Analysis Using SPSS. (6th ed.). Open University Press.
Park, H. S., Dailey, R., & Lemus, D. (2002). The use of exploratory factor analysis and principal components analysis in communication research. Human Communication Research, 28(4), 562-577.
Raju, P. S., Lonial, S. C., & Mangold, W. G. (1995). Differential effects of subjective knowledge, objective knowledge, and usage experience on decision making: An exploratory investigation. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 4(2), 153–180.
Rav-Marathe, K., Wan, T. T., & Marathe, S. (2014). A systematic review on the KAP-O framework for diabetes education and research. Medical Researcn Archives, 4(1).
Salih, N. K. M. (2018). Applications of gum arabic in medical and health benefits. Gum Arabic: Structure, Properties, Application and Economics.
Schwartz, N. E. (1975). Nutritional knowledge, attitudes, and practices of high school graduates. Journal of American Dietitian Association, 66(1), 28–31.
Selnes, F., & Grønhaug, K. (1986). Subjective and objective measures of product knowledge contrasted. Advances in Consumer Research, 13(1), 67–71.
Snyder, F. J., Dundas, M. L., Kirkpatrick, C., & Neill, K. S. (2009). Use and safety perceptions regarding herbal supplements: A study of older persons in Southeast Idaho. Journal of Nutrition for the Elderly, 28(1), 81–95.
Stobbelaar, D. J., Casimir, G., Borghuis, J., Marks, I., Meijer, L., & Zebeda, S. (2007). Adolescents’ attitudes towards organic food: A survey of 15- to 16-year old school children. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 31(4), 349–356.
Tabachnick, B. G. & Fidell, L. S., (2007), Using Multivariate Statistics. Pearson Education Inc.
Tsang, S., Royse, C. F., & Terkawi, A. S. (2017). Guidelines for developing, translating, and validating a questionnaire in perioperative and pain medicine. Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia, 11(1), 80-89.
Verbeke, W. (2008). Impact of communications on consumers' food choices. Proceedings of the Nutrition Sciences, 67, 281-288.
Willers, J., Heinemann, M., Bitterlich N., Pickel S., & Hahn, A. (2015). Use of dietary supplements. Is there a risk of an excessive intake of vitamins and minerals? Ernah- rungs Umschau International, 62(10), 162–166.
Zezelj, S. P., Tomljanovic, A., Jovanovic, G. K., Kresic, G., Peloza, O. C., Dragas-Zubalk & Prokurica, I. P. (2018). Prevalence, knowledge and attitudes concerning dietary supplements among a student population in Croatia Sandra. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(1058).
Zikmund, W. G., Babin, B. J., Carr, J. C., & Griffin, M. (2013). Business Research Methods (9th ed.). Cengage Learning.