Institution Buying Process in Purchasing Group Package Tour
Educational and governmental institution is classified as the business customer with have the purpose of purchasing is to fulfil the needs of organization. Both institutions organize trips for their students and for their employees with a purpose. Travel agencies are needed in arranging those group tour activities due to the large number of tour members. The buying process in organizations goes through several steps that involve a number of individuals. This research is using a qualitative approach which in collecting the data about B2B buying process in institutions organization, the researcher utilizes in-depth interviews to the respondents from educational and governmental institutions. The purpose of this paper is to identify the process of purchasing activity in the institution organization for buying group packages tour. The step that usually done by the institution in buying group packages tour are starting from recognize the problems and needs, determine the product/service needed, specify the specification and quantity of the service needed, finding the potential vendors, analyse the offering proposal from vendors, and the last part is selecting the best vendor. This paper contributes to the literature by offering insights about the process of travel services purchasing activity in institution organization. The outcomes and applications for the business practitioner are identified for developing marketing planning in travel agencies to propose institutional market.
Baxter, P., & Jack, S. (2015). Qualitative Case Study Methodology: Study Design and Implementation for Novice Researchers. The Qualitative Report. https://doi.org/10.467 43/2160-3715/2008.1573
Campbell, C., Papania, L., Parent, M., & Cyr, D. (2010). An exploratory study into brand alignment in B2B relationships. Industrial Marketing Management, 39(5), 712–720. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indmarman.2010.02.009
Çebi, F., & Bayraktar, D. (2003). An integrated approach for supplier selection. Logistics Information Management, 16(6), 395–400. https://doi.org/10.1108/0957605 0310503 376
Chandler, J. D., & Johnston, W. (2012). Chapter 3 The Organizational Buying Center as a Framework for Emergent Topics in Business-to-Business Marketing (pp. 41–87). https://doi.org/10.1108/S1069-0964(2012)0000018008
Davis, D. F., Golicic, S. L., & Marquardt, A. (2012). Business-to-Business Marketing Management: Strategies, Cases, and Solutions. In M. S. Glynn & A. G. Woodside (Eds.), Business-to-Business Marketing Management: Strategies, Cases, and Solutions (Vol. 18). Emerald Group Publishing Limited. https://doi.org/10.1108/S1069-0964(2012)0000018019
Dwyer, F. R., & Tanner, J. F. (2002). Business Marketing: Connection Strategy, Relationships, and Learning. McGraw-Hill.
Grewal, R., Lilien, G. L., Bharadwaj, S., Jindal, P., Kayande, U., Lusch, R. F., Mantrala, M., Palmatier, R. W., Rindfleisch, A., Scheer, L. K., Spekman, R., & Sridhar, S. (2015). Business-to-Business Buying: Challenges and Opportunities. Customer Needs and Solutions, 2(3), 193–208. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40547-015-0040-5
Hox, J. J., & Boeije, H. R. (2005). Data Collection, Primary vs. Secondary. In Encyclopedia of Social Measurement (pp. 593–599). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B0-12-369398-5/00041-4
Karpak, B., Kasuganti, R. R., & Kumcu, E. (2011). Multi-Objective Decision-Making In Supplier Selection: An Application Of Visual Interactive Goal Programming. Journal of Applied Business Research (JABR), 15(2), 57. https://doi.org/10.19030/ jabr.v15i2.5679
Kemp, E. A., Borders, A. L., Anaza, N. A., & Johnston, W. J. (2018). The heart in organizational buying: marketers’ understanding of emotions and decision-making of buyers. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 33(1), 19–28. https://doi.org/10.1108/JBIM-06-2017-0129
Lilia Gomez-Lanier. (2017). The Experiential Learning Impact of International and Domestic Study Tours: Class Excursions That Are More Than Field Trips. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 1(29), 129–144.
Lilien, G. L. (2016). The B2B Knowledge Gap. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 33(3), 543–556. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijresmar.2016.01.003
Lin, Y.-C., Li, C.-L., Hsiao, Y.-W., & Chen, Y.-C. (2019). Predicting How Trust on eWOM Influences Consumer Purchase Intentions toward Group Package Tours in Tourism Social Networks. International Journal of E-Education, e-Business, e-Management and e-Learning, 9(3), 160–176. https://doi.org/10.17706/ijeeee.2019.9.3.160-176
Makkonen, H., Olkkonen, R., & Halinen, A. (2012). Organizational buying as muddling through: A practice–theory approach. Journal of Business Research, 65(6), 773–780. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2010.12.015
Mora Cortez, R., & Johnston, W. J. (2017). The future of B2B marketing theory: A historical and prospective analysis. Industrial Marketing Management, 66, 90–102. https://doi.org/10. 1016/j.indmarman.2017.07.017
Ray Wright. (2004). Business-to-business Marketing: A Step-by-step Guide. Pearson Education.
Taherdoost, H., & Brard, A. (2019). Analyzing the Process of Supplier Selection Criteria and Methods. Procedia Manufacturing, 32, 1024–1034. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. promfg.2019.02.317
Theng Lau, G., Razzaque, M. A., & Ong, A. (2003). Gatekeeping in organizational purchasing: an empirical investigation. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 18(1), 82–103. https://doi.org/10.1108/08858620310458651
Trusheva, S., & Syzdykbaeva, B. U. (2018). Prospects and Development of Tourism in Kazakhstan and the Impact of Incentive Tours on Efficiency. EUROPEAN RESEARCH STUDIES JOURNAL, XXI(Issue 3), 727–737. https://doi.org/10.35808/ ersj/1096
Wang, K.-C., Hsieh, A.-T., & Huan, T.-C. (2000). Critical service features in group package tour: An exploratory research. Tourism Management, 21(2), 177–189. https://doi.org/10.10 16/S0261-5177(99)00047-3
Wilson, D. F. (2000). Why divide consumer and organizational buyer behaviour? European Journal of Marketing, 34(7), 780–796. https://doi.org/10.1108/03090560010331207