Social Loafing in Work Group Settings: The Role of Servant Leadership and Felt Obligation

  • Azeyan Awee
  • Farhana Hanim Mohsin
  • Norhayati Md Isa
  • Zafir Khan Mohamed Makhbul
  • Farha Zafira Agos Lokman

Abstract

Throughout human history, the value of groups of individuals working together to achieve, conquer, and discover has been emphasised. Teams and organisations are increasingly relied upon to perform a wide range of duties, from product creation to service production, in today's world. People's motivation and effort may be affected by collaborative efforts, which can result in significant losses for groups as well as lower productivity for businesses. As a phenomenon known as "social loafing," the tendency of other team members not to put in their fair share of effort and do less than they might when working in teams is one of the most important factors affecting group success. An important contribution to our knowledge of servant leadership, social loafing, and the sense of duty in the workplace is provided by this study's examination and analysis of relevant literature as well as theoretical underpinning and empirical investigations. There are several theoretical and empirical possibilities for further study in the areas of servant leadership, social loafing, and felt obligation.

References

Ahearne, M., Mathieu, J., & Rapp, A. (2005). To empower or not to empower your sales force? An empirical examination of the influence of leadership empowerment behavior on customer satisfaction and performance. Journal of Applied psychology, 90(5), 945.
Blau, P. M. (1968). Social exchange. International encyclopedia of the social sciences, 7(4), 452-457.
Bouzari, M., & Karatepe, O. M. (2017). Test of a mediation model of psychological capital among hotel salespeople. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management.
Brooks, C. M., & Ammons, J. L. (2003). Free riding in group projects and the effects of timing, frequency, and specificity of criteria in peer assessments. Journal of Education for Business, 78(5), 268-272.
Brownell, J. (2010). Leadership in the service of hospitality. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 51(3), 363-378.
Brown, M. E., & Treviño, L. K. (2006). Ethical leadership: A review and future directions. The leadership quarterly, 17(6), 595-616.
Chiniara, M., & Bentein, K. (2016). Linking servant leadership to individual performance: Differentiating the mediating role of autonomy, competence and relatedness need satisfaction. The Leadership Quarterly, 27(1), 124-141.
Chon, K. K. S., & Zoltan, J. (2019). Role of servant leadership in contemporary hospitality. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management.
Chidambaram, L., Tung, L. L. (2005). Is out of sight, out of mind? An empirical study of social loafing in technology-supported groups. Information Systems Research, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 149–168. doi: 10.1287/isre.1050.0051
Colquitt, J. A., Scott, B. A., & LePine, J. A. (2007). Trust, trustworthiness, and trust propensity: a meta-analytic test of their unique relationships with risk taking and job performance. Journal of applied psychology, 92(4), 909.
Cropanzano, R., & Mitchell, M. S. (2005). Social exchange theory: An interdisciplinary review. Journal of management, 31(6), 874-900.
Dirks, K. T., & Ferrin, D. L. (2002). Trust in leadership: meta-analytic findings and implications for research and practice. Journal of applied psychology, 87(4), 611.
Dutton, J. E., & Ragins, B. R. (2007). Moving Forward: Positive Relationships at Work as a Research Frontier.
Ehrhart, M. G. (2004). Leadership and procedural justice climate as antecedents of unit‐level organizational citizenship behavior. Personnel psychology, 57(1), 61-94.
Elche, D., Ruiz-Palomino, P., & Linuesa-Langreo, J. (2020). Servant leadership and organizational citizenship behavior: the mediating effect of empathy and service climate. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management.
George, J. M. (1992). Extrinsic and Intrinsic Origins of Perceived Social Loafing in Organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 35(1), 191–202.
Gouldner, A. W. (1960). The norm of reciprocity: A preliminary statement. American sociological review, 161-178.
Gotsis, G., & Grimani, K. (2016). The role of servant leadership in fostering inclusive organizations. Journal of Management Development.
Greenleaf, R. K. (1977). Servant-leadership: A journey into the nature of legitimate power and greatness. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press.
Gui, C., Zhang, P., Zou, R., & Ouyang, X. (2021). Servant leadership in hospitality: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 30(4), 438-458.
Hoch, J. E., Bommer, W. H., Dulebohn, J. H., & Wu, D. (2018). Do ethical, authentic, and servant leadership explain variance above and beyond transformational leadership? A meta-analysis. Journal of Management, 44(2), 501-529.
Hurley, E. A., & Allen, B. A. (2007). Asking the how questions: Quantifying group processes behaviors. The Journal of general psychology, 134(1), 5-21.
Koyuncu, M., Burke, R. J., Astakhova, M., Eren, D., & Cetin, H. (2014). Servant leadership and perceptions of service quality provided by front-line service workers in hotels in Turkey: Achieving competitive advantage. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management.
Kozlowski, S. W., & Ilgen, D. R. (2006). Enhancing the effectiveness of work groups and teams. Psychological science in the public interest, 7(3), 77-124.
Kusluvan, S., Kusluvan, Z., Ilhan, I., & Buyruk, L. (2010). The human dimension: A review of human resources management issues in the tourism and hospitality industry. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 51(2), 171-214.
Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., Zhao, H., & Henderson, D. (2008). Servant leadership: Development of a multidimensional measure and multi-level assessment. The leadership quarterly, 19(2), 161-177.
Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., Liao, C., & Meuser, J. D. (2014). Servant leadership and serving culture: Influence on individual and unit performance. Academy of management journal, 57(5), 1434-1452.
Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., Meuser, J. D., Hu, J., Wu, J., & Liao, C. (2015). Servant leadership: Validation of a short form of the SL-28. The Leadership Quarterly, 26(2), 254-269.
A. Newman & G. Schwarz & B. Cooper & S. Sendjaya, 2017."How Servant Leadership Influences Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Roles of LMX, Empowerment, and Proactive Personality," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 145(1), pages 49-62, September.
Panaccio, A. Donia, M. Saint-Michel, S. and Liden, R. C. (2015). Servant leadership and Wellbeing. In R. J. Burke, K. M. Page & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Flourishing in Life, Work and Careers: Individual Wellbeing and Career Experiences. (pp. 334). UK: Edward Elgar Publishing
Qiu, S., & Dooley, L. (2022). How servant leadership affects organizational citizenship behavior: the mediating roles of perceived procedural justice and trust. Leadership & Organization Development Journal.
Samuelson, C. D., & Messick, D. M. (1986). Alternative structural solutions to resource dilemmas. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 37(1), 139-155.
Samuelson, C. D., Messick, D. M., Rutte, C., & Wilke, H. (1984). Individual and structural solutions to resource dilemmas in two cultures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47(1), 94.
Schaubroeck, J., Lam, S. S., & Peng, A. C. (2011). Cognition-based and affect-based trust as mediators of leader behavior influences on team performance. Journal of applied psychology, 96(4), 863.
Schippers, M. (2014). Social Loafing Tendencies and Team Performance: The Compensating Effect of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 13(1), 62-81. Retrieved January 5, 2021, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/43696595
Stone, A. G., Russell, R. F., & Patterson, K. (2004). Transformational versus servant leadership: A difference in leader focus. Leadership & organization development journal.
Van Dierendonck, D., & Nuijten, I. (2011). The servant leadership survey: Development and validation of a multidimensional measure. Journal of business and psychology, 26(3), 249-267.
Vveinhardt, J., & Banikonytė, J. (2017). Managerial solutions that increase the effect of group synergy and reduce social loafing. Organizacijų vadyba: sisteminiai tyrimai= Management of organizations: systematic research. Kaunas: Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas, 2017, T. 78.
Walumbwa, F. O., Hartnell, C. A., & Oke, A. (2010). Servant leadership, procedural justice climate, service climate, employee attitudes, and organizational citizenship behavior: a cross-level investigation. Journal of applied psychology, 95(3), 517.
Yang, F. X., & Lau, V. M. C. (2015). Does workplace guanxi matter to hotel career success?. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 47, 43-53.
Published
2022-06-01
How to Cite
AWEE, Azeyan et al. Social Loafing in Work Group Settings: The Role of Servant Leadership and Felt Obligation. Asian Journal of Research in Business and Management, [S.l.], v. 4, n. 2, p. 61-67, june 2022. Available at: <https://myjms.mohe.gov.my/index.php/ajrbm/article/view/18359>. Date accessed: 15 aug. 2022.
Section
Articles