Entrepreneurial Characteristics and Self-Efficacy: A Multiple Moderators Model
This paper aims to investigate whether entrepreneurial self-efficacy can be predicted by entrepreneurial characteristics of risk-taking propensity, self-confidence and the need of achievement. It also determines whether educational background of entrepreneurs and gender moderate the relationship between entrepreneurial characteristics and entrepreneurial self-efficacy. A total of 188 survey responses were collected from entrepreneurs (66% males & 34% females) through convenience sampling. 46% of these entrepreneurs had business-related educational studies and 55% were from non-business educational programmes. 39% of the entrepreneurs were from family with entrepreneurial background whereas the remaining 61% were from family with non-entrepreneurial background. SmartPLS 2.0 was employed to build the causal model. The measurement model was reliable as indicated by adequate convergent validity as the factor loadings exceeded .50, the AVE exceeded .50 and the composite reliability exceeded .70. Results reported that propensity to take-risk, self-confidence and the need for achievement significantly predicted entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Secondly, educational background significantly moderated the relationship between propensity to take-risk, self-confidence, need for achievement and entrepreneurial self-efficacy. And lastly, gender significantly moderated the relationship between need for achievement and entrepreneurial self-efficacy; but gender did not significantly moderate the relationship between propensity to take-risk, self-confidence and entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Finally, the Goodness-of-Fit (GoF) value was .44, which implied that the model has reliable explaining power.