Organisational Commitment and Intention to Stay: The Roles of Felt Obligation

  • Farhana Hanim Mohsin
  • Hatijah Mohamed Salleh
  • Khairunnisa Ishak
  • Norhayati Md Isa

Abstract

The labour market remains severely disrupted as we press on to almost a year of the Covid-19 outbreak. It is challenging to quit a job at the moment, particularly with all the ambiguity during Covid-19 pandemic. Previously, employees were seen to depart from their companies and move to another business almost immediately as there were plenty of job opportunities available on the market. Since recruiting is stalled and competition for vacancies is intense, the retention rate of employees would be influenced in particular by their intention to stay. Intention to stay is determined by various employee behaviours, including, in particular, organisational commitment and felt obligation, as a vital determinant for actual turnover actions. On that note, this study provides an insight into intention to stay by reviewing relevant literature, theoretical foundation and analysis of empirical studies in order to further our understanding on the nomological net between intention to stay, organisational commitment and felt obligation, particularly in the context of during the pandemic. Building on the review, we will develop a potential research agenda that will present on opportunities for theoretical advancement and empirical findings in intention to stay studies.

References

Abbasi, Sami M, & Hollman, Kenneth W. (2000). Turnover: The real bottom line. Public Personnel Management, 29(3), 333-342.
AbuAlRub, RF, & Nasrallah, MA. (2017). Leadership behaviours, organizational culture and intention to stay amongst Jordanian nurses. International nursing review, 64(4), 520-527.
Ahmad, A. (2018). The relationship among job characteristics organizational commitment and employee turnover intentions. Journal of Work-Applied Management, 10(1), 74–92. doi:10.1108/jwam-09-2017-0027
Ajzen, Icek, & Fishbein, Martin. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behaviour.
Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 50(2), 179-211.
Alam, S. S., & Sayuti, N. M. (2011). Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in halal food purchasing. International journal of Commerce and Management.
Allen, D.G., Shore, L.M. and Griffeth, R.W. (2003), “The role of perceived organizational support and supportive human resource practices in the turnover process”, Journal of Management, Vol. 29 No. 1, pp. 99-118
Arshadi, N. (2011). The relationships of perceived organizational support (POS) with organizational commitment, in-role performance, and turnover intention: Mediating role of felt obligation. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, 1103–1108. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.10.215
Bell, M. & Sheridan, A. (2020). How organisational commitment influences nurses’ intention to stay in nursing throughout their career, International Journal of Nursing Studies Advances, 2, ISSN 2666-142X, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnsa.2020.100007
Bellamkonda, Neha, Santhanam, Nivethitha, & Pattusamy, Murugan. (2020). Goal Clarity, Trust in Management and Intention to Stay: The Mediating Role of Work Engagement. South Asian Journal of Human Resources Management, 2322093720965322.
Berg, M., Janoff-Bulman, R. and Cotter, J. (2001), “Perceiving value in obligations and goals: wanting to do what should be done”, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Vol. 27 No. 8, pp. 982-995.
Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. Transaction Publishers.
Blau, P. M. (1964). Justice in social exchange. Sociological Inquiry, 34(2), 193–206.
Caitlin, Q.B. (2017). Investigating the Roles of Felt Obligation and Politics in the Context of Procedural Justice-Outcome Relationships, Retrieved from https://www.albany.edu/undergraduateeducation/files/CaitlinBriggs.pdf
Chaisuriyathavikun, M., & Punnakitikashem, P. (2015). A Study of Organizational Commitment and Intention to Stay in Gold Retailer Business, International Journal of Management and Applied Science, 1(2), ISSN: 2394-7926
Chami-Malaeb, Rola, & Garavan, Thomas. (2013). Talent and leadership development practices as drivers of intention to stay in Lebanese organisations: the mediating role of affective commitment. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24(21), 4046-4062.
Chang, C.L., McAleer, M., Ramos, V., 2020. A charter for sustainable tourism after COVID-19. Sustainability 12 (3671), 1–4.
Chen, M. F., & Tung, P. J. (2014). Developing an extended theory of planned behavior model to predict consumers’ intention to visit green hotels. International journal of hospitality management, 36, 221-230.
Cohen, A. (2007). Investigating the Relationship among Fit Organization, Organization Commitment and Employee’s Intention to Stay: Malaysian Context. Global Business Review, 21(1), 68–87.
Coyle-Shapiro, J. A.-M., Morrow, P. C., & Kessler, I. (2006). Serving two organizations: Exploring the employment relationship of contracted employees. Human Resource Management, 45(4), 561–583. doi:10.1002/hrm.20132
Cropanzano, R., & Mitchell, M. S. (2005). Social exchange theory: An interdisciplinary review. Journal of Management, 31(6), 874–900
Daim, N. (2020, December 14). Local tourism sector has suffered RM100 billion in losses due to pandemic. New Straits Times. Retrieved from https://www.nst.com.my/news/nation/2020/12/649305/local-tourism-sector-has-suffered-rm100-billion-losses-due-pandemic
Dalessio, Anthony, Silverman, William H, & Schuck, John R. (1986). Paths to turnover: A re-analysis and review of existing data on the Mobley, Horner, and Hollingsworth turnover model. Human Relations, 39(3), 245-263.
Eagly, A. H., & Chaiken, S. (1993). The psychology of attitudes. Harcourt brace Jovanovich college publishers.
Eisenberger, R., Armeli, S., Rexwinkel, B., Lynch, P. D., & Rhoades, L. (2001). Reciprocation of perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 42-51.
Eisenberger, R., Fasolo, P., & Davis-LaMastro, V. (1990). Perceived organizational support and employee diligence, commitment, and innovation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 51-59.
Eisenberger, R., Huntington, R., Hutchinson, S., & Sowa, D. (1986). Perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 500-507.
Eisenberger, R., Jones, J. R., Aselage, J., & Sucharski, I. L. (2004). Perceived organizational support. In J. A.-M. Coyle-Shapiro, L. M. Shore, M. S. Taylor, & L. E. Tetrick (Eds.), The employment relationship: Examining psychological and contextual perspectives (pp. 206–225). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Etehadi, B., Karatepe, O.M., 2019. The impact of job insecurity on critical hotel employee outcomes: the mediating role of self-efficacy. J. Hosp. Mark. Manage. 28 (6), 665– 689.
George, Christeen. (2015). Retaining professional workers: what makes them stay? Employee Relations, 37(1), 102-121.
Griffeth, Rodger W, & Hom, Peter W. (2001). Retaining valued employees: Sage Publications.
Greenfield, E. (2009). Felt obligation to help others as a protective factor against losses in psychological well-being following functional decline in middle and later life. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 64(6), 723-732. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbp074
Hoai Nam Nguyen, Quoc Hoi Le, Quang Bach Tran, Thi Hoang Mai Tran, Thi Hai Yen Nguyen, Thi Thuy Quynh Nguyen. (2020). Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 7(6), 439 – 447.
Holtom, Brooks C, Mitchell, Terence R, Lee, Thomas W, & Eberly, Marion B. (2008). 5 turnover and retention research: a glance at the past, a closer review of the present, and a venture into the future. Academy of Management annals, 2(1), 231-274.
Homans, G. C. (1958). Social behavior as exchange. American Journal of Sociology, 63(6),
597–606.
Huang, Y.-H., Lee, J., McFadden, A. C., Murphy, L. A., Robertson, M. M., Cheung, J. H., & Zohar, D. (2016). Beyond safety outcomes: An investigation of the impact of safety climate on job satisfaction, employee engagement and turnover using social exchange theory as the theoretical framework. Applied Ergonomics, 55, 248–257. doi:10.1016/j.apergo.2015.10.007
Hussain, A., Khan, M. A., & Hussain, J. (2020). Interplay of Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intention in Academic Sector. Review of Economics and Development Studies, 6(2), 401-412.
Jung, H. S., Jung, Y. S., & Yoon, H. H. (2021). COVID-19: The effects of job insecurity on the job engagement and turnover intent of deluxe hotel employees and the moderating role of generational characteristics. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 92, 102703. doi:10.1016/j.ijhm.2020.102703
Kawi, M. R. (2020, June 27). Covid-19: Malaysia's tourism industry hit with RM45 billion in losses. New Straits Times. Retrieved from https://www.nst.com.my/news/nation/2020/06/604012/covid-19-malaysias-tourism-industry-hit-rm45-billion-losses
Kim, Sang-Wook, Price, James L, Mueller, Charles W, & Watson, Thomas W. (1996). The determinants of career intent among physicians at a US Air Force hospital. Human relations, 49(7), 947-976.
Liew, T., Y. (2009). The Relationships Between Perceived Organizational Support, Felt Obligation, Affective Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intention of Academics working with Private Higher Educational Institutions in Malaysia, European Journal of Social Sciences, 9 (1), 72-87.
Liu, Z., Min, Q., Zhai, Q., & Smyth, R. (2016). Self-disclosure in Chinese micro-blogging: A social exchange theory perspective. Information & Management, 53(1), 53–63. doi:10.1016/j.im.2015.08.006
Malhotra, N., Ashill, N., Lages, C. R., & Homayounfard, A. (2020). Understanding the role of frontline employee felt obligation in services. The Service Industries Journal, 1–29. doi:10.1080/02642069.2020.1858062
Malik, N. (2020). The Influence of Turnover Factors Toward Employees’ Intention to Stay: A Case Study in Indonesian Islamic Universities. Jurnal Teknik Industri, 21(1).
Martin, A. and Roodt, G. (2008), “Perceptions of organizational commitment, job satisfaction and turnover intentions in a post-merger South African tertiary institution”, South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, Vol. 34 No. 1, pp. 23-31.
Mathieu, J. E., & Zajac, D. M. (1990). A review and meta-analysis of the antecedents, correlates, and consequences of organizational commitment. Psychological Bulletin, 108(2), 171–194.
Maynard-Patrick, S., & Baugh, S. G. (2019). The role of felt obligation to mentor in mentor performance: An exploration of generalized reciprocity in mentoring. The Career Development International, 24(7), 619–635. https://doi.org/10.1108/CDI-11-2018-0286
Meyer, J.P, Natalie JA (2002). Commitment in the Workplace Theory Research and Application. California: Sage Publications.
Meyer, J. P., Stanley, D.J., Herscovitch, L., & Topolnytsky. L. (2002). Affective, Continuance, and Normative Commitment to the Organization: A Meta-analysis of Antecedents, Correlates, and Consequences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61, 20–52.
Mitchell, Terence R, Holtom, Brooks C, Lee, Thomas W, Sablynski, Chris J, & Erez, Miriam. (2001). Why people stay: Using job embeddedness to predict voluntary turnover. Academy of management journal, 44(6), 1102-1121.
Mossholder, K. W., Settoon, R. P., & Henagan, S. C. (2005). A relational perspective on turnover: Examining structural, attitudinal, and behavioral predictors. Academy of Management Journal, 48(4), 607–618. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2005.17843941
Mowday, Steers & Porter. (1979). The measurement of organizational Commitment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, Vol. 14, pp.224-247.
Mustapha, Noraani, Ahmad, Aminah, Uli, Jegak, & Idris, Khairuddin. (2011). Antecedents of intention to stay with the mediating effects of work-family factors among single mothers. European Journal of Social Sciences, 22(2), 262-279.
Ng, T.W.H. and Sorensen, K.L. (2008), “Toward a further understanding of the relationships between perceptions of support and work attitudes: a meta-analysis”, Group & Organization Management, Vol. 33 No. 3, pp. 243-268.
Nimri, R., Patiar, A., Kensbock, S., & Jin, X. (2020). Consumers’ intention to stay in green hotels in Australia: Theorization and implications. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 44(1), 149-168.
Noor, A., Zainuddin, Y., Panigrahi, S.K. & Taju Rahim, F. (2020). Investigating the Relationship among Fit Organization, Organization Commitment and Employee’s Intention to Stay: Malaysian Context. Global Business Review, 21(1) 68–87.
Paillé, P., & Valéau, P. (2020). “I Don’t Owe You, But I Am Committed”: Does Felt Obligation Matter on the Effect of Green Training on Employee Environmental Commitment?. Organization & Environment, 1086026620921453.
Pham. L. & Pham. L. (2016). The Effects of Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment on Intention to Stay: Case Study at The Universities, Colleges in Bac Lieu City, Bac Lieu Province, The International Days of Statistics and Economics, Prague, September 8-10, 2016.
Pradesa, H. A., Dawud, J., & Affandi, M. N. (2019). Mediating role of affective commitment in the effect of ethical work climate on felt obligation among public officers. JEMA: Jurnal Ilmiah Bidang Akuntansi dan Manajemen, 16(2), 133-146.
Redditt, J., Gregory, A. M., & Ro, H. (2017). An Examination of Organizational Commitment and Intention to Stay in the Timeshare Industry: Variations Across Generations in the Workplace, International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, ISSN: 1525-6480, doi: 10.1080/15256480.2017.1359735
Roch, S.G., Shannon, C.E, Martin, J.J, Swiderski, D., Agosta, J.P, Shanock, L.R. (2019). Role of employee felt obligation and endorsement of the just world hypothesis: A social exchange theory investigation in an organizational justice context. Journal Applied Soc Psychol. 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1111/jasp.12578
Saad, Z. (2020, August 14). Malaysia's economy shrinks 17.1pct on Covid-19 impact. New Straits Times. Retrieved from https://www.nst.com.my/business/2020/08/616534/malaysias-economy-shrinks-171pct-covid-19-impact
Shanker, Meera. (2014). A Study on Organizational Climate in Relation to Employees' Intention to Stay. Journal of Psychosocial Research, 9(2), 389.
Shaw, Jason D, Gupta, Nina, & Delery, John E. (2005). Alternative conceptualizations of the relationship between voluntary turnover and organizational performance. Academy of management journal, 48(1), 50-68.
Soenanta, A., Akbar, M. & Sariwulan, R.T. (2020). The effect of job satisfaction and organizational commitment to employee retention in a lighting company. Issues in Business Management and Economics, 8 (4), 97-103.
Sobaih A.E.E., Hasanein, A.M., Aliedan, M.M., Abdallah, H.S. (2020). The impact of transactional and transformational leadership on employee intention to stay in deluxe hotels: Mediating role of organisational commitment. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 0(0) 1–13.
Steers, Richard M, Mowday, Richard T, & Porter, Lyman W. (1979). Employee Turnover and Post Decision Accommodation Processes: Oregon Univ Eugene Graduate School Of Management And Business.
Taylor, S., & Todd, P. (1995). Decomposition and crossover effects in the theory of planned behavior: A study of consumer adoption intentions. International journal of research in marketing, 12(2), 137-155.
Thibault, J. W., & Kelley, H. H. (1959). The social psychology of groups. New York: Wiley.
Uraon, R., S. (2017). Examining the Impact of HRD Practices on Organizational Commitment and Intention to Stay Within Selected Software Companies in India, Advances in Developing Human Resources, 1–33, doi.org/10.1177/1523422317741691
Uraon, Ram Shankar. (2018). Examining the impact of HRD practices on organizational commitment and intention to stay within selected software companies in India. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 20(1), 11-43.
Wiener, Y. (1982), “Commitment in organizations: a normative view”, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 7 No. 3, pp. 418-428.
Wikhamn, W., & Selart, M. (2019). Empowerment and initiative: the mediating role of obligation. Employee Relations. doi:10.1108/er-11-2017-0273
Woon, Winnie, Tan, Cheng-Ling, & Nasurdin, Aizzat Mohd. (2017). Linking Organizational Climate, Psychological Ownership, and Intention to Stay: A Proposed Model. Global Business & Management Research, 9.
Yan, Z., Wang, T., Chen, Y., & Zhang, H. (2016). Knowledge sharing in online health communities: A social exchange theory perspective. Information & Management, 53(5), 643–653. doi:10.1016/j.im.2016.02.001
Yew, L. T. (2011). Understanding the antecedents of affective organizational commitment and turnover intention of academics in Malaysia: The organizational support theory perspectives. African Journal of Business Management, 5(7), 2551-2562. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJBM10.284. Zahid, S. J. (2020, July 13). Covid-19: Malaysian retail sector posts worst performance since 1987 global recession. The Malay Mail. Retrieved from https://www.malaymail.com/news/malaysia/2020/07/13/covid-19-malaysian-retail- sector-posts-worst-performance-since-1987-global/1883964
Published
2021-03-01
How to Cite
MOHSIN, Farhana Hanim et al. Organisational Commitment and Intention to Stay: The Roles of Felt Obligation. Asian Journal of Behavioural Sciences, [S.l.], v. 3, n. 1, p. 40-53, mar. 2021. ISSN 2710-5865. Available at: <https://myjms.mohe.gov.my/index.php/ajbs/article/view/12509>. Date accessed: 24 oct. 2021.
Section
Articles