MELIOIDOSIS IN PERAK
TWO YEARS REVIEW
Melioidosis is an infectious disease cause by Burkholderia pseudomallei, bacteria originated from soil. To date, melioidosis is not a notifiable disease in Malaysia, therefore the true incidence rate is not known, although many cases were reported around Malaysia every year.
This study was done to look at the incidence rate (IR), case fatality rate (CFR) and possible epidemiology trend.
We analysed all melioidosis cases (probable and confirmed) notified to the Perak State Health Department from January 2016 to December 2017. A confirmed case is defined as any clinical case with positive culture or positive PCR or a four-fold rise in serological titre.
A total of 137 cases were notified within the 2-year period and were included for analysis. 40 cases (29.2%) were confirmed melioidosis. Majority (77.5%) of the cases were among males, age between 41-60-year-old (52.50%), and were Malays (87.50%). Case notifications were noted to increase during October to December in relation to rain fall. IR for Perak state was less than 1 per 100 000 population. Almost half of the cases succumbed to the infection. Among districts, Kerian has the highest IR and CFR, in keeping with large paddy field area in the district.
Melioidosis is underreported in Perak and the incidence was low as compared to other states. There are much more to be done in capturing the true incidence and mapping the real disease burden in Perak as the mortality of the disease is high.