Removal of cadmium ion from aqueous solution using plant-based anionic surfactant impregnated activated carbon

  • Noor Era Fazirah Jundam Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Normadyzah Ahmad Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Siti Wahidah Puasa Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor, Malaysia


Activated carbon was modified by impregnating it with sodium lauryl sulfoacetate (SLSA), a plant-based anionic surfactant and tested to determine whether the surfactant will increase the effectiveness of cadmium ion removal from aqueous solution of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) by activated carbon. The activated carbon used was industrial grade granular type tested without grinding or sieving. The surfactant preparation and the impregnation were done at 600 °C. The heavy metal removal test conducted at 300 °C to mimic normal weather temperature of Malaysia. The granular activated carbon was characterized using BET (Brunauer-Emmet-Teller) while the surfactant chemical properties analysed using FTIR. The aqueous solutions before and after the test were analysed using AAS (atomic absorption spectroscopy). The result obtained has shown that SIAC at 125 ppm has the highest cadmium removal averaging 37.87%. The lowest removal shown by SIAC at 10 ppm with an average of 7.70%.


A. Al-Alawy (2017). Comparative Study Between Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis Membranes for the Removal of Heavy Metals From Electroplating Wastewater. Journal of engineering (23), 25-32.

B. L. Mohammad (2018). Determination of Cadmium, Chromium and Lead from Industrial Wastewater in Kambolcha, Ethiopia using FAAS. Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 34-52.

E. Deliyanni, G. Kyzas, K. Triantafyllidis, & K. Matis (2015). Activated Carbons for the Removal of Heavy Metalions: A Systematic Review Of Recent Literature Focused On Lead and Arsenic Ions. De Gruyter Open Chem, 699-708.

Environmental Protection Agency. (1999). Choosing an Adsorption System for VOC: Carbon, Zeolites or Polymers. Technical Bulletin, 1-22.

G. Rashad, M. Mahmoud, & R. Sheha, (2017). Impregnated Activated Carbon for Adsorption of Gd(III) Radionuclides from Aqueous Solutions. particulate science and technology, 62-74.

H. Kose (2010). The Effect of Physical Factors on The Adsorption of Synthetic Organic Compounds by Activated Carbon and Activated Carbon Fibres. Clemson University Tigerprints, 133-145.

H. Liu, S. Feng, N. Zhang, & X. Du (2013). Removal of Cu(II) Ions from Aqueous Solution by Activated Carbon Impregnated with Humic Acid. Environmental science engineering, 198-234.

H. Yanagisawa, Y. Matsumoto, & M. Machida (2010). Adsorption of Zn(ii) and Cd(ii) Ions onto Magnesium and Activated Carbon Composite in Aqueous Solution. Applied science surface, 344-356.

I. Isik-Gulsak (2016). Investigation of Impregnated Activated Carbon Properties Used in Hydrogen Sulfine Fine Removal. Brazilian Journal Of Chemical Engineering, vol 33, 1-20.

Innofresh. (2017). Activated Carbon under the Microspcope. Retrieved from

J.K. Brennan, K. T. Thomson, & Gubbins, K. E. (2001). Adsorption of Water in Activated Carbon: Effect of Pore Blocking and Connectivity. Langmuir, 5438-5447.

J. Kim, E. Park, J. Kim, J. Han, T. S. Kwon, Y.K. Park, & J. K. Jeon (2014). Isomerization of EndoTetrahydrodicyclopentadiene over y Zeolite Catalysts. Journal of the Korean Industrial and
Engineering Chemistry , 66-71.

J. Gamboa-Carbalo, D. Valdes, K. Melchor-Rodriguez, & J. Ulises-Javier (2016). Theoretical Study of Chlordecone and Surface Groups Interaction in an Activated Carbon Model under Acidic and Neutral conditions. Journal of Molecular Graphic & Modelling, 83-93.

J. Matthis (2017). Activated Carbon Option. Retrieved from May 25, 2017

M. Byambaa, E. Dolgor, K. Shiomori, & Y. Suzuki (2018). Removal and Recovery of Heavy Metals From Industrial Wastewater by Precipitation and Foam Separation Using Lime and Casein. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 1-9.

M. Lakdawala, & J. Lakdawala, (2013). Comparative Study of Effect of PAC and GAC on Removal of COD Contributing Component of Sugar Industry Wastewater. Research Journal Of Recent Sciences, 90-97.

M. Mahmoud, G. S. El-Deen, & M. Soliman, (2014). Surfactant-impregnated Activated Carbon for Enhanced Adsorptive Removal of Ce(IV) Radionucleoside from Aqueous Solution. Annals of Nuclear Energy, 134-144.

M. Pego, J. Carvalho, & D. Guedes (2017). Surface Modification of Activated Carbon and Its Impact on Applications. World Scientific, 1-10.

R. A. Bernhoft (2013). Cadmium Toxicity and Treatment. The Scientific World Journal, 97-112.

R. Brooks, M. Bahadory, F. Tovia, & H. Rostami (2010). Removala of Lead from Contaminated Water. International Journal Of Soil, Sediment and Water, 1-12.

S. Malekmohammadi, A. Mirbagheri, & M. Ehteshami (2016). Comparison of Silica, Activated Carbon, And Zeolite Adsorbents in the Removal Of Ammonium, Iron, COD, Turbidity and Phosphate Pollutants, and Investigating The Effect Of Discharge on the Removal of Pollutants. International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies, 667-679.

S. Abo-El-Enein, M. Eissa, A. Diafullah, M. Rizk & F. Mohamed (2009). Removal of Some Heavy Metals Ions from Wastewater by Copolymer of Iron and Aluminium Impregnated with Active Silica Derived from Rice Husk Ash. Journal of Hazardous Material, 574-579.

S. Ching, M. Yusoff, H. A. Aziz, & M. Umar (2011). Influence of Impregnation Ratio on Coffee Ground Activated Carbon As Landfill Leachate Adsorbent for Removal of Total Iron and Orthophosphate. Desalination, 225-234.

S. Lin, W. Chen, M. Cheng, M., & Q. Li (2013). Investigation of Factors That Affect Cationic Surfactant Loading on Activated Carbon and Perchlorate Adsorption. Colloids and surfaces: A physicochemical and engineering aspect, 236-242.

S. Paria, & K. C. Khillar (2004). A Review on Experimental Studies of Surfactant Adsorption at the Hydrophilic Solid-Water Interface. Advances in Colloids and Interface Science, 75-95.

T. Osmari, R. Gallon, M. Schwaab, E. BarbosaCoutinho, J. Severo, & J. Pinto (2013). Statistical Analysis of Linear and Non-Linear Regression for the Estimation of Adsorption Isotherm Parameters. Adsorption Science & Technology, 433-458.

W. Chen, L. Pan, L. Chen, Z. Yu, Q. Wang, & C. Yan (2014). Comparison of EDTA and SDS as Potential Surface Impregnation Agents for Lead Adsorption by Activated Carbon. Applied Surface Science, 1-8.
How to Cite
JUNDAM, Noor Era Fazirah; AHMAD, Normadyzah; PUASA, Siti Wahidah. Removal of cadmium ion from aqueous solution using plant-based anionic surfactant impregnated activated carbon. Malaysian Journal of Chemical Engineering and Technology (MJCET), [S.l.], v. 3, n. 2, p. 60-66, dec. 2020. ISSN 2682-8588. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 20 apr. 2021. doi:

Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.