Fonologi Kata Pinjaman Tamil dalam Bahasa Melayu Berdasarkan Teori Optimaliti

  • Sharifah Raihan Syed Jaafar Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
  • Thamaraselvi Krishnasamy Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

Abstract

Kajian ini bertujuan untuk menjelaskan perubahan fonologi kata pinjaman Tamil yang diserap masuk ke dalam bahasa Melayu. Kata pinjaman Tamil perlu menjalani perubahan fonologi demi untuk mematuhi sistem nahu bahasa Melayu. Oleh sebab bahasa Tamil dan bahasa Melayu mempunyai nahu yang berbeza, maka timbul persoalan, apakah perkataan bahasa Tamil yang telah dipinjam dan bagaimanakah perkataan Tamil tersebut menghasilkan bentuk yang baharu untuk disesuaikan dengan sistem bahasa Melayu? Oleh itu, kajian ini dilakukan untuk mengenal pasti kata pinjaman Tamil yang mengalami perubahan fonologi apabila diserap masuk ke dalam bahasa Melayu, dan mengkategorikan serta menjelaskan secara teoretis jenis adaptasi yang berlaku berdasarkan perubahan fonologi kata pinjaman Tamil. Kajian ini menggunakan data sekunder yang diperoleh daripada Noriah dan Selvarani (2015). Sejumlah 381 perkataan Tamil telah dikenal pasti digunakan dalam bahasa Melayu. Hasil analisis tatatingkat kekangan dalam teori Optimaliti menunjukkan kata pinjaman Tamil dalam bahasa Melayu melibatkan perubahan pada peringkat struktur suku kata, iaitu degeminasi, pemendekan vokal dan pengguguran suku kata.


Kata kunci: bahasa Melayu, bahasa Tamil, kata pinjaman, fonologi, teori optimaliti


This study intends to explain the phonological modifications of Tamil loanwords that have been absorbed into Malay language. Tamil loanwords have to undergo some phonological modifications in order to conform to the system of Malay grammar. The grammar differences between Tamil and Malay languages have given rise to the question of which Tamil words have been borrowed by Malay and how new words have been formed to comply with the Malay language system. Thus, this study was conducted to identify Tamil loanwords that have undergone phonological changes when they are incorporated into Malay language as well as to categorize and explain theoretically the type of adaptation that occurs based on the phonological changes of Tamil loanwords. This study utilizes secondary data obtained from Noriah and Selvarani (2015). A total of 381 words have been identified as Tamil loanwords that are used in Malay language. The results of the hierarchical constraint analysis in Optimality theory show that Tamil loanwords in Malay language involved modification at the syllable structure such as degemenation, vowel shortening and syllable deletion.


Keywords: Malay, Tamil, loanwords, phonology, Optimality theory


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Author Biographies

Sharifah Raihan Syed Jaafar, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

Pusat Kelestarian Sains Bahasa,
Fakulti Sains Sosial dan Kemanusiaan

Thamaraselvi Krishnasamy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

Pusat Kelestarian Sains Bahasa,
Fakulti Sains Sosial dan Kemanusiaan

Published
2018-12-11
How to Cite
SYED JAAFAR, Sharifah Raihan; KRISHNASAMY, Thamaraselvi. Fonologi Kata Pinjaman Tamil dalam Bahasa Melayu Berdasarkan Teori Optimaliti. Jurnal Bahasa, [S.l.], v. 18, n. 2, p. 343-362, dec. 2018. ISSN 2462-1889. Available at: <http://myjms.mohe.gov.my/index.php/jurnalbahasa/article/view/3911>. Date accessed: 22 july 2019.