ESTEEM Academic Journal is an official academic publication of UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA (UiTM) Pulau Pinang. ESTEEM provides an avenue for academicians and researchers to contribute and share their vast knowledge, ideas and opinions. This journal, which publishes original articles based on a broad general area, serves as a platform for scholars to disseminate information and latest findings on innovation in science and technology. Thus, ESTEEM welcomes unpublished academic manuscripts that contribute to the advancement of knowledge in engineering, science & technology. In order to maintain the quality of this journal, its editorial board has adopted an established policy of blind review process consisting of at least two peer reviewers per manuscript.