Api dalam Sekam: Menelusuri Faktor Pencetus Konflik Perkauman Melayu-Cina Selepas Pendudukan Jepun

(Discovering the Factors that Trigger Malay-Chinese Conflict after the Japanese Occupation)

  • Mohamed Ali Haniffa Universiti Utara Malaysia
  • Nor Azlah Sham Rambely Universiti Utara Malaysia
  • Ayu Nor Azilah Mohamad Kolej Universiti Islam Antarabangsa

Abstract

Artikel ini meneliti faktor yang mencetuskan ketegangan hubungan antara orang Melayu dengan Cina selepas pemerintahan tentera Jepun di Tanah Melayu. Perjanjian Pangkor pada tahun 1874 mengubah landskap penjajahan British di Tanah Melayu. Imperialisme dan kolonialisme membawa kebanjiran imigran di Tanah Melayu dan kehilangan hak orang Melayu di tanah air sendiri. Pemerintahan tentera Jepun memberikan ruang kepada komunis melakukan kezaliman ketika melegitimasikan kuasa mereka. Prasangka yang berakar umbi diterjemahkan dalam bentuk konflik perkauman Melayu-Cina di Tanah Melayu. Orang Melayu yang dizalimi oleh penjajah mula memikirkan kelangsungan survival bangsa. Kajian menggunakan metodologi pendekatan sejarah, rekod kolonial dan wawancara informer tempatan. Ternyata, konflik perkauman Melayu-Cina membangkitkan semangat nasionalisme orang Melayu untuk menentang penjajah.
Kata kunci: Perjanjian Pangkor, imperialisme dan kolonialisme, Jepun, pergaduhan Melayu-Cina, nasionalisme


This paper examines the factors that have sparked tensions between the Malays and the Chinese after the Japanese military rule in Malaya. The Pangkor Treaty in 1874 had changed the British colonial landscape in Malaya. Imperialism and colonialism have led to the influx of immigrants in Malaya and the loss of the rights of the Malays in their own homeland. The Japanese military rule has given opportunity to the communists to commit tyranny, especially when legitimising their power. The prejudice feeling has turned into Malay-Chinese racial conflict in Malaya. The Malays who had been mistreated by the colonialists began to think about the nation’s survival. This paper used a historical approach methodology, colonial records and interviews with local informers to study the problems that exist. It is proven that the Malay-Chinese racial conflict has had a positive impact in instilling the Malay’s awareness towards nationalism.
Keywords: Pangkor Treaty, imperialism and colonialism, Japan, Malay-Chinese conflicts, nationalism


RUJUKAN


Ahmad Nazri Abdullah. (1985). Melayu dan Tanah. Kuala Lumpur: Media Intelek Sdn. Bhd.


Abu Talib Ahmad. (2006, 1 – 4 Disember). Darurat dan Perpaduan antara Kaum. Persidangan Kebangsaan mengenai Dato’ Onn Jaafar, Johor Bahru.


Berita Minggu, 2 Oktober 2011a, “Masih Dihantui Ancaman Pengganas”.


Berita Minggu, 2 Oktober 2011b, “Tinggal Kampung Halaman Takut Kekejaman Komunis”.


Burridge, Kenelm, O. L. (1951). Racial relations in Johore. Australian Journal of Politics and History, II(2) Mei.


BMA/ADM/8/45–21/2/46-30/4/46: Petition from Perak Labour Union for The Release of Chen Hoong Ming and Leong Chin Chok.


Cheah Boon Kheng. (1983). Red star over Malaya: Resistance and social conflict during and after the Japanese occupation of Malaya, 1941 1946. Singapore: Singapore University Press.


CAJ 134/46, 1946: 2.


CO 273/675/12: Future policy New Constitution, Initial Relations with Malay Sultans on The Liberation of Malaya.


CO 537/1533: Policy-Chinese Affairs in Malaya.


CO 537/1548: Policy: Malaya: Malay Attitude-1946.


CO 537/1572: British Military Administration Malaya-Monthly Reports.


CO 537/1580: Growth of Inter Racial Feeling in Malaya (SECRET).


CO 537/2140: HQ Malaya Command Fortnightly Intelligence Review No. 56, 7 Mei 1947 (SECRET).


CO 537/3750: Political Developments Review of Chinese Affairs (SECRET).


CO 537/3755: 10.


CO 537/3757: Malaya: Chinese Affairs and Correspondence with Mr. H.T. Pagden-1948.


CO 717/143/18, Durbar of Rulers of F.M.S.


DOLP. 60/45: (i) Resettlements of Reguees (ii) Application for Agricultural Loans-13.10.45 20.2.48.


DOLP. 101/45: Penghulus Conference-26.11.45 – 22.12.47.


Fajar Asia, 25 Ichigatsu 2603: 9.


Fajar Asia, No. 5, 13 Shigatsu 2603, Tahun 1: 135.


Fajar Asia, No. 8, 31 Gogatsu 2603: 239.


FO 371/27734: 1941-China, Membership of The Kuo-Min-Tang (Parliamentary Question), 30 Jul. 1941.


FO 371/27751: Chinese Schools in Malaya-Control-1941.


FO 371/35924: Conditions in Malaya: Report-1943.


FO 371/41625: Special Article I Received from The South SEAS.


Hairi Abdullah. (1973). Kebangkitan dan Gerakan Tentera Selendang Merah dalam Sejarah Daerah Muar dan Batu Pahat, JEBAT, 3/4, 1973/4, 1974/5.


Ishak Saat. (2009). Malaysia 1945 2000. Kuala Lumpur: Utusan Publications and Distributors Sdn. Bhd.


INF. 66/1947, 6 Okt. 1947: 72.


Khoo Kay Kim. (1981). Sino–Malaya Relations in Peninsular Malaysia Before 1942. Journal of Southeast Asian History, 12(1).


Mansor Mohd. Noor, Abdul Rahman Abdul Aziz, Mohamad Ainuddin Iskandar Lee. (2006). Hubungan Etnik di Malaysia. Selangor: Pearson Malaysia Sdn. Bhd.


Mingguan Malaysia, 4 September 2011, “Kekejaman PKM Tetap Dirasa”.


MU. Sec. 7097/46: Stray Pigs in Malay Holdings, Minor Offences Enact. Sect. 22 (Cap 46). Mingguan Malaysia, 4 September 2011


NS. SEC. 653/1947: Complains Against The Sale During The Japanese Occupation of EMR 1780, Mukim of Ulu Muar, by Her Late Husband, Che Jamin bin Hj. Mohd Nor.


Purcell, Victor. (1948). The Chinese in Malaya. London: Oxford University Press.


PK. SEC. 2/46: Communal Disturbances.


Phg. Conf. 67/50: Activities of Che Omar bin Midun, Penghulu Bera with The Bandits.


RCJ. 241/46: Ulu Tiram Massacre and Exhumation of Dead Bodies, 30.4.46-12.11.47.


Roff. William, R. (1967). Nasionalisme Melayu. Kuala Lumpur: Penerbit Universiti Malaya.


SUKJ. 6203/1945: Outstation Reports And Correspondence Muar, 19.9.45 – 27.11.45, Pejabat Setiausaha Kerajaan Johor (BMA/SCAO.J) 1945.


SP98/161/1, The Social and Psychological Roots of Communalism in Malaysia by Professor Dr. Syed Hussein Alatas.


Saudara, 15 November 1930.


Saudara, 1 Ogos 1934.

Author Biographies

Nor Azlah Sham Rambely, Universiti Utara Malaysia

Jabatan Tamadun dan Falsafah,
Pusat Pengajian Bahasa, Tamadun dan Falsafah

Ayu Nor Azilah Mohamad, Kolej Universiti Islam Antarabangsa

Jabatan Kenegaraan dan Pengajian Ketamadunan,
Pusat Pengajian Teras

Published
2019-01-11
How to Cite
HANIFFA, Mohamed Ali; RAMBELY, Nor Azlah Sham; MOHAMAD, Ayu Nor Azilah. Api dalam Sekam: Menelusuri Faktor Pencetus Konflik Perkauman Melayu-Cina Selepas Pendudukan Jepun. Melayu:Jurnal Antarabangsa Dunia Melayu, [S.l.], v. 12, n. 1, p. 109-123, jan. 2019. ISSN 1675-6460. Available at: <http://myjms.mohe.gov.my/index.php/Melayu/article/view/3997>. Date accessed: 25 apr. 2019.