Medical Management of Open-Angle Glaucoma: Focus on Mechanisms of Action and Adverse Drug Reactions
Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy characterised by optic nerve degeneration associated with visual field defects. It remains the world’s number one cause of irreversible blindness and
patients usually present at late stage of the disease since it is generally asymptomatic until severe. The disease is subdivided into primary and secondary with primary open-angle
glaucoma (POAG) being the most common type. At present, lowering the intraocular pressure (IOP) remains the only proven efficient approach in delaying the onset or preventing
the progression of the disease. Medical treatment with topical antiglaucoma agents is the treatment of choice in open angle glaucoma. The use of antiglaucoma drugs aims to reduce
IOP by enhancing aqueous humour (AH) outflow, reducing AH production, or both. The choice to use any available treatment option should be carefully considered in an attempt to
maximise benefits and reducing the risk of developing adverse drug reactions. This review highlights the six classes of ocular hypotensive agents currently in use for POAG treatment including prostaglandin analogues; B-adrenergic receptor blockers; a-2 adrenergic receptor stimulants; carbonic anhydrase inhibitors; muscarinic receptor stimulants; rho kinase inhibitors with regards to their mechanism/s of action and potential adverse drug reactions, and antiglaucoma fixed drug combinations.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The Copyright of this article is hereby assigned to JCHS effective upon acceptance by the Journal for publication. This assignment is for the exclusive right of reproduction and distribution of the article, including excerpts, translations, photographic reproduction, electronic formats (online and offline), or any other form of analogical reproduction. An author may make the article available on a personal website provided that the Journal’s name and date of publication are cited and the publisher is cited as the copyright owner.