Medical Management of Open-Angle Glaucoma: Focus on Mechanisms of Action and Adverse Drug Reactions

  • Norhafiza Razali
  • Mohammad Daniel  Shafiq Hassan
  • Amy Suzana Abu Bakar
  • Renu Agarwal


Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy characterised by optic nerve degeneration associated with visual field defects. It remains the world’s number one cause of irreversible blindness and
patients usually present at late stage of the disease since it is generally asymptomatic until severe. The disease is subdivided into primary and secondary with primary open-angle
glaucoma (POAG) being the most common type. At present, lowering the intraocular pressure (IOP) remains the only proven efficient approach in delaying the onset or preventing
the progression of the disease. Medical treatment with topical antiglaucoma agents is the treatment of choice in open angle glaucoma. The use of antiglaucoma drugs aims to reduce
IOP by enhancing aqueous humour (AH) outflow, reducing AH production, or both. The choice to use any available treatment option should be carefully considered in an attempt to
maximise benefits and reducing the risk of developing adverse drug reactions. This review highlights the six classes of ocular hypotensive agents currently in use for POAG treatment including prostaglandin analogues; B-adrenergic receptor blockers; a-2 adrenergic receptor stimulants; carbonic anhydrase inhibitors; muscarinic receptor stimulants; rho kinase inhibitors with regards to their mechanism/s of action and potential adverse drug reactions, and antiglaucoma fixed drug combinations.

How to Cite
RAZALI, Norhafiza et al. Medical Management of Open-Angle Glaucoma: Focus on Mechanisms of Action and Adverse Drug Reactions. Journal of Clinical and Health Sciences, [S.l.], v. 6, n. 1, p. 4-17, mar. 2021. ISSN 0127-984X. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 22 apr. 2021. doi:

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